Questions regarding morphemes (smallest semantically meaningful units in a language) such as words, affixes, parts of speech, intonation/stress, or implied context.

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9
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2answers
422 views

Preservation of the en- prefix form of Latin negative prefix in-, in enemy & enmity

The en- in enemy is a prefix meaning "not": the origin is Latin inimicus, from in- + amicus — a "not friend" or an "unfriend" (Online Etymology Dictionary—enemy). The Latin in- changed to en- when ...
3
votes
1answer
156 views

How did 'how' + 'ever' = 'however' ⟹ 'but'?

[ OED: ] Etymology: < how adv. + ever adv. 8e. Qualifying a sentence or clause as a whole: For all that, nevertheless, notwithstanding; yet; = but at the beginning of the sentence. ...
1
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0answers
70 views

“restaurant” has 1 or 2 morphemes?

Morpheme: The smallest unit of meaning that a word can be divided into The word ‘like’ contains one morpheme but ‘un-like-ly’ contains three.Source The word "restaurant" /ˈres.tə.rɑːnt/ has 1 or 2 ...
0
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1answer
41 views

Morphology and syntax

Can you explain the definition of free and bound base in term of morphology and give me some examples. I do not understand
16
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2answers
1k views

What’s going on with “drink > drench”? Is it like “passage > passenger”?

Edit: I am looking for a particular linguistic term for this process (which here uses terminal palatalization to indicate such) of turning passive verbs like drink into active verbs like drench. I ...
3
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5answers
4k views

No coffee, no workee - meaning

No coffee, no workee What does that expression exactly mean? And how do you pronounce it?
4
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2answers
113 views

Other special hyphenation examples than eight-teen

According to The TeXbook [Don Knuth, 1984], solution to Exercise 14.8, the word eighteen should be hyphenated eight-teen. It is, indeed, standard practice in pre-reform German to contract triple ...
6
votes
2answers
3k views

Rules for forming demonyms

Are there specific rules / conventions at play when creating demonyms? Or are they merely formed organically over time - the most popular winning out? There are many suffixes to choose from, but I ...
2
votes
1answer
43 views

Correct morphological parse of a word “indecipherable”

What will be the correct morphological parse of word indecipherable in-prefix>decipher-stem>able-suffix or indecipherable in-prefix>de- prefix >cipher-stem>able-suffix ...
1
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0answers
70 views

From where do new English words come? [closed]

There are, always, new editions of well-known English dictionaries updated with new English words, therefore, what are the sources of these new English words? Please, be as clear as possible, and use ...
0
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0answers
125 views

What are the morphemes in the word “imaginative”?

What are the morphemes in the word "imaginative" and what are their functions? I'm studying morphology, and I know the general types of morphemes in words. Every morpheme has a meaning that changes ...
12
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5answers
7k views

Usage of -ist and -ian, when to use which?

This is a question bugging me for a long long time, especially for a non-native speaker like myself. We have physicist standing for the people doing physics research, as is linguist, chemist, etc. ...
-1
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2answers
2k views

Origin of pluralisation of verbs and nouns in English

From this question, I was just wondering why plural nouns use the ending -s, while the exact same ending is used for the third person singular form of verbs. How did we get into this weird situation? ...
13
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1answer
6k views

Is there a maximum number of suffixes that can be added to an English word?

You can add various derivational and inflectional suffixes on to most English words to create new longer words (or forms of words). But is there a definite or theoretical maximum that can be added in ...
18
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3answers
7k views

Does a gerund always end with -ing? If so, why?

After asking what the difference is between a gerund and a participle, I began to wonder if all gerunds end with -ing, since I couldn't think of any that didn't. If they do, why?
7
votes
4answers
1k views

Is “Englishnization” an acceptable term?

There's a company named Rakuten in Japan, which introduced "Englishnization" a couple of years ago. They adopted an internal policy where all the employees are expected to speak English as an official ...
0
votes
3answers
210 views

Is “exceptioned” a word?

The question is a little more complex than the title states. Exceptioned is not in the dictionary. But I am not trying to use this as a verb. I work in IT. We keep a list of exceptioned words that we ...
0
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4answers
175 views
12
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4answers
9k views

How can I form a word like “quadruple” for any number I want?

I'm not sure what these are called, but how can I form a word like "quadruple" for any number I want? Like 5× as much is quintuple, what is 31× as much or 147× as much? I want to know how they are ...
1
vote
2answers
137 views

Is “testes” an inflectional reduplication?

I was supposed to ask this question 1 year ago and it is based on a discussion in this question that I answered: What is a word called that consists of a repetition of one word? I gave testes as an ...
5
votes
2answers
347 views

Strong /strɔːŋ/ → stronger /strɔːŋɡər/ - Why do we have to put an extra /g/ in front of /ər/? Is it a rule?

Ok, see this in the dictionary: Strong /strɔːŋ/ --> Stronger /strɔːŋɡər/ Why do we have to put an extra /g/ in front of /ər/? But "/sing" /sɪŋ/ & "/singer" /ˈsɪŋər/ do not adhere to that rule. ...
2
votes
1answer
183 views

When can/can't you add “-less” at the end of a word?

When can or can't you add -less at the end of a word? What are the limitations to its productivity? Can you say anything at all, like streakless or phoneless? I am really sorry for the stupid question....
1
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2answers
70 views

Morphological analysis of the formation of unhappier

I am an English student from Austria and have a question concerning morphology. In the reading I did for one of my introductory courses on linguistics there was a chapter on the analysis of word-...
0
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3answers
427 views

“Utilisability” vs. “usability”

I tried hard to find if we have the noun utilisability in dictionaries but it does not exist. But, when goolging, I found some articles that contain this word. I know that we have the verb to use ...
1
vote
2answers
827 views

No, not, and non [closed]

Is there a specific rule, or set of rules, that can be followed to know when to use each word? I have noticed that not is usually used with a verb, but I think that there sometimes are exceptions ...
1
vote
1answer
435 views

How many monosyllabic words does English have? (estimations are fine)

I'm writing a post about word length in various languages in the world. It seems that English have (relatively) a lot of one-syllable words. Is there a count or an estimate of how many one-syllable ...
3
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3answers
217 views

Why Greek morphemes over Latin, or Latin over Greek? *A Call to Lexicographers*

Is there a rationale behind why certain English words take Greek morphemes (or affixes) over Latin morphemes, and vice versa? Why do certain Greek morphemes become standard English idiom over Latin ...
6
votes
5answers
2k views

Does “neath” have any standalone meaning?

Beneath and underneath both indicate similar concepts, and since under- is a free morpheme in many contexts, is neath a bound morpheme or does it derive from a standalone root? I bring this up since ...
0
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1answer
67 views

Modifying a word in its structure (spelling) to convey a different meaning?

Somewhere on the Internet I read the following lines: Daughter is not equal to tensions. Daughter is equal to ten-sons. In this sentence the word "tension" is modified to be written as "ten-sons"...
0
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3answers
207 views

Do the words 'poster' and 'mixer' have one or two morphemes?

The words 'Driver', 'writer' and 'player' are composed of base and -er morpheme, which have the meaning of the one who writes or drives..., whereas 'mixer' doesn't mean the one who mixes, does it mean ...
0
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3answers
107 views

What verb describes divisive behavior?

I can't find a proper verb corresponding to the adjective divisive. If a person is divisive, then can I also say that they "divide other people apart"? Is there a verb for divisive?
7
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3answers
539 views

The horribility of English language

Pretty much every adjective that ends in the suffix -able or -ible gives rise to a related noun: corruptible becomes corruptibility mutable becomes mutability respectable becomes respectability ...
1
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1answer
113 views

Antonym of 'helper'?

This is my question. If 'helper' means 'someone who helps', then what is 'someone who got helped'? Whom does the helper help? Is there any term to define it? Thanks!
0
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2answers
132 views

Verbal analogy: sweet _ness_ is to suffix as boat _swain_ is to … In other words, what is the term for the _swain_ morpheme?

At some point in the past I encountered the following verbal analogy: SWEET NESS : SUFFIX :: BOAT SWAIN : ? In my view, the question is asking what one would term the "swain" morpheme in "...
6
votes
4answers
316 views

Why is “omnipotent” stressed iambically?

"Omnipotent" is stressed like omˈnipotent, with a stress on second syllable. But both components are stressed on the first syllable ('omni and 'potent). And a comparable word, "omnipresent", has the ...
4
votes
1answer
171 views

What is the need of an invisible affix?

When nothing means something: In morpheme-based morphology, a null morpheme is a morpheme that is realized by a phonologically null affix (an empty string of phonological segments). In simpler ...
8
votes
3answers
2k views

“Inter-”, “multi-”, “cross-”, “trans-” in relation to disciplines

In academia the words inter-discipline, multi-discipline, trans-discipline, or cross-discipline are used to describe a type of combination between different disciplines or the uniqueness of a field. ...
1
vote
3answers
252 views

Base/root of increment and decrement

I'm tasked with a morphological analysis of incrementing. I would say that crement is the base of increment and the root of the word. But I'm curious, because all my life I've been thinking about ...
9
votes
1answer
2k views

Why is “coon” a word?

The word formation process that yielded the word coon is called (fore-)clipping: raccoon > coon Other examples of fore-clipping include: bot (robot), chute (parachute), roach (cockroach), coon ...
4
votes
1answer
191 views

Morphology of mobster, gangster, webster, hipster

Where the letter "t" came from in these words? Is it part of the suffix -ter- or a separate suffix? Where the "s" comes from? Can other words on -ster be formed this way?
1
vote
2answers
104 views

How common are adjectives on -ly?

How common in English are adjectives ending with -ly? I can remember only "stately" and "unruly". Is it adequate to assume, say in machine text analysis, that apart from several predefined exceptions ...
2
votes
2answers
201 views

What's the origin of the demonym Thai?

I was curious why we called people from Thailand "Thai" and those from Taiwan "Taiwanese." The latter by itself is a bit less surprising, though. See also: Are there any rules governing what we call ...
5
votes
2answers
982 views

Is there a word for made up verbs that end in “ing”?

One thing I love about English is that verbs can be easily created just by adding the suffix "-ing" and adjectives by adding "-ly". How would you call this phenomenon? Examples: Googling, ...
1
vote
5answers
4k views

Is “incomplex” a legitimate word?

I want to create a poster titled "An Incomplex Introduction to Complexity-based Cryptography." As you see, it contrasts the words incomplex and complexity. (Words like simple or easy do not provide ...
39
votes
3answers
51k views

What’s the rule for adding “-er” vs. “-or” when nouning a verb?

What’s the rule to decide whether you add -er or whether you add -or when creating a noun from a verb? Sometimes it’s -er: read > reader hate > hater hit > hitter But other times it’s -or: ...
6
votes
3answers
5k views

Where is the root in these words: miniature, minimal, minimize?

Is it possible to identify one and the same root MIN in all these words: Miniature, minimal, minimize, minimum minor, minority, minus, minute ? From etymological point of view they all came from one ...
15
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3answers
3k views

“Sometimes”, “oftentimes” — is there a -times word for “very rarely”?

If something happens sometimes, it happens occasionally. If something happens oftentimes, it happens often. Is there an equivalent word for something happening very rarely?
0
votes
1answer
217 views

What it the morphological classification of the ending -ump? [duplicate]

Can someone tell me how to classify the morpheme -ump, such as can be combined with lump,slump, bump, etc. (It's for a research I'm doing on onomatopoeia.) thanks
6
votes
3answers
2k views

Why are the notes or protocol of a meeting referred to as its 'minutes'?

A minute is 60 seconds. Something 'minute' is small, minor, perhaps short. Now, what about the minutes of a meeting or a session? As in, its written protocol? Are they called that because: The ...
0
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0answers
141 views

Morphemic versus phonemic approach to teaching the many sounds of “ou”

Is there a way I can explain the many sounds of the phoneme "ou" using the morphemic structure of words instead of the phonemic way?