Questions pertaining to logical constructs

learn more… | top users | synonyms

0
votes
10answers
126 views

Boolean OR in English

What is the English equivalent of boolean-OR, which conveys the meaning of "either of the options or both", as opposed to XOR, which conveys the meaning of "strictly one or the other"? "Either or ...
8
votes
2answers
3k views

“Neither can live while the other survives”— does it make logical sense?

At the end of the fifth book of Harry Potter, "The Order of Phoenix", there is a prophecy concerning Harry Potter and Lord Voldemort: The one with the power to vanquish the Dark Lord ( Lord ...
0
votes
1answer
61 views

Why do people use the word “or” when offering a translation?

I have encountered many times speakers & authors who use the word "or" in the process of translating. Here is an example I ran across tonight: Could you keep a different kind of fast such as a ...
0
votes
0answers
44 views

How multiple quantifiers in a sentence are interpreted

Someone sleeps everyday. Does this mean that there is someone who sleeps everyday or that everyday someone sleeps?
-1
votes
2answers
26 views

Is “to take part to join us” a valid sentence?

I've seen it quite many times but it sounds like it repeats same thing twice?
9
votes
7answers
841 views

Word or term for an argument that is inherently true

What do you call an argument/position that is impossible to counter because it depends on undefined adjectives/adverbs? Examples: Good websites are the ones that are effectively designed. ...
12
votes
5answers
8k views

Does “either A or B ” preclude “both A and B”?

In mathematics, "A or B" includes "A and B". Does "either" mean "A or B but not (A and B)" or does it include the possibility of "A and B"? The context might be mathematics, formal logic or ordinary ...
5
votes
2answers
108 views

Would the rejection of an argument because of a grammatical error be a type of logical fallacy?

Many people may have experienced situations (often online) where someone dismisses another's argument not on the merits of the argument, but because of a grammatical (or, more generally, mechanical) ...
8
votes
5answers
37k views

“Centered on” or “centered around”

I have often heard presenters talking about something centered around another thing, but it seems a bit illogical and hence improper to talk like this. Am I right about this?
1
vote
3answers
184 views

How do definitions of words imbue meaning? [closed]

How do definitions of words imbue meaning? To give you a gist of what I try to discover, I'll define a collection of sets of words and show that their intersection contains all 'circular defined' ...
1
vote
1answer
63 views

Why is there no word for and/or? [closed]

It seems like it would be really useful to have a single word like "anor" instead of the clunky "and/or" construction that people use. After all, "or" by itself is usually used to mean "exclusive or" ...
0
votes
1answer
39 views

Is this a logically symmetric relation: “X must be consistent with Y”

Does it follow that if I make the statement "X must be consistent with Y" that "Y must be consistent with X"? I'm hoping to hear this answered from a linguistics perspective, specifically related to ...
1
vote
2answers
112 views

What is the difference between “It is raining” and “'It is raining' is true?” [closed]

"It is raining." "'It is raining' is true." Does "is true" make any difference? Thanks. This link gives context to this question and testify that I'm not a nut (yet).
3
votes
4answers
109 views

Justifying one wrong thing by comparing it its opposite which is also wrong

Is there a word or name for the phenomenon or syndrome in which people try to defend one wrong thing by comparing it something that is total opposite of it but also wrong? For example: Drone ...
0
votes
1answer
70 views

Discrete data vs cumulative data [closed]

1)Can we use discrete data as antonym for cumulative data ? 2)can discrete data be cumulative data? Simple yes/no in both cases would suffice.
1
vote
2answers
69 views

Name for logical fallacy of “implied guilt”?

For example; "No puppies were harmed in the making of this soda", implying that puppies are generally harmed in the production of soda, and thus casting the competition in a bad light. Is there a ...
1
vote
3answers
145 views

Is English particularly well suited for so-called “natural language programming”?

Programming languages like sEnglish, Inform7, WolframAlpha, and even AppleScript purport to use the "natural language programming" (NLP) paradigm. Even SQL is a kind of NLP, if you think about it. ...
9
votes
5answers
7k views

“If” vs “Only if” vs “If and only if”

If I said: Yell only if I fall. Would the person have to yell once I fell? Sources of confusion Wikipedia This guy
0
votes
1answer
130 views

Logical fallacy brain-freeze

There must be a name for this sort of after-the-fact non-argument. Sorry, this is the only way I could find to describe it. Debbie finds a kitten. Kitten has been burned over half its body, but ...
0
votes
1answer
44 views

Designators, quantifications and predicates in Predicate Logic [closed]

So, I got my Predicate Logic exercises back, and I had apprently made one mistake. What is annoying is that I don't know why. The taks was to identify all the designators and predicates in a certain ...
3
votes
2answers
393 views

Cut the lights on

This expression is commonly used in the southern United States from Oklahoma to Virginia, and is patently illogical, and yet fails to inspire any consternation or lack of semantic connection. On a ...
0
votes
1answer
67 views

Is 'an eye' a designator?

I realize this may be a super-rookie question, but I have to ask. It is in connection with my logic module. Is 'an eye' in this sentence a designator? I was told to keep an eye on him I know ...
18
votes
7answers
6k views

“All that is gold does not glitter”

"All that is gold does not glitter" is the first line of a poem from the Lord of the Rings and it's supposed to mean "not all gold glitters" but I'm struggling to see how this can be deduced. If all ...
1
vote
1answer
196 views

(GRE) Parallel Structures

The following is a sample question taken from the revised version of the ETS-administered Graduate Record Examination (GRE). I normally try hard to understand the logic behind selecting the choices ...
-1
votes
1answer
43 views

Many to one or many to many

Record A is linked to case 1 Record B is linked to case 2 Record C is linked to case 3 Which of the following sentences is correct? There are 3 records linked to a case There are 3 ...
4
votes
2answers
136 views

At least two or more: Not always redundant?

At least two or more Is the “or more” bit above ever not redundant? Seems absolutely redundant to me, but it gets about 170 million Google hits, and many from government sites and university ...
4
votes
5answers
1k views

The size of my confusion is “second to none”

Why "second to none" is being considered as "the best" instead of "the worst" (almost non existent)? To my understanding - "none" is "nonexistent", while "second to none" should be... well... almost ...
4
votes
4answers
445 views

What's the logical fallacy where people dismiss what you say as irrelevant to the real-world?

Quite often I see derision about ideas by people who label them as 'too academic'. Often this appears to result from laziness or an unwillingness to stretch their thinking. What's the logical ...
1
vote
1answer
99 views

What does “Graduates from business school or Economics with mathematical background” mean?

Hello I have a question about "English logic". For instance on a job offer I see this requirement: Graduates from business school or economics with mathematical background. So If I ...
10
votes
7answers
2k views

Does 'some' necessarily imply 'not all'?

If some X's are Y's, does that imply that some X's are not Y's?
0
votes
1answer
78 views

Which logical fallacy pushes through something as though it were fact and creates a point of contention afterwards to distract? [closed]

For example: "To corrupt society by allowing violent video games is something only a mother could understand." The point of contention is likely to be the latter part, where you'd be tempted to say ...
6
votes
3answers
224 views

Difference between “not every” and “every … is not”

I've always understood that you can order the words not and every (or similar words) in the following two ways to convey distinct logical meanings. Every human is not a man. There is no human being ...
-1
votes
2answers
59 views

Logical Argument

Is the conclusion true here? Either Peter did not know it or Sarah did know it. But Peter did know it. Therefore, Sarah did know it.
-1
votes
2answers
90 views

Responding with a basic fact to imply a point of view is clearly flawed or wrong

What is a word or concept that describes a situation where one person puts forth a point of view, and another person does not directly address the position, but instead responds with an obvious, basic ...
-2
votes
2answers
77 views

“Only for A, B, and C”: Includes cases where not all are present? [closed]

After submitting the report, changes can be made only for the font size, margins, and line spacing. Does this sentence imply that changes can be made only if all three types of changes are ...
3
votes
2answers
209 views

Hypernym for “conjunction” and “disjunction”

Is there a hypernym for conjunction and disjunction, in their logical senses? Just using "junction" doesn't seem right to me.
-4
votes
1answer
146 views

Does the use of the word 'itself' defy logic? [closed]

In simple arithmetic the basic operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division are all binary. That means you need two numbers, one on each side of the operation, for an expression ...
0
votes
1answer
65 views

Can “refute” be used with “that” clauses, and if so, what is the meaning?

I refute that A is B. If this structure is ok, which of the following does it mean: I argue that A is not B. I argue against some other position (such as X is Y), by arguing that A is B.
0
votes
1answer
810 views

Meaning of “either”: “not /A or B/” = “not /either A or B/”?

In a positive sentence, "either . . .or" is sometimes used to express an exclusive disjunction. However, what happens when “either” is used in negation, as in sentence two below? Is the meaning the ...
4
votes
2answers
700 views

Does the plural include the singular?

Does the plural include the singular? And if so, in what sort of cases? This question has arisen because of the example sentence below. Amendment shall be permitted only in cases of: 1. deletion ...
1
vote
2answers
104 views

Without, free from, lacking, etc.: Unambiguous total negation with “OR”?

In the following, “does not cause” seems to be clear negation, and total negation requires “or”, therefore: The widget does not cause deformities or cracks However, it is unclear to me whether ...
4
votes
2answers
332 views

What's the difference between “Not Completely True” and “Completely Not True”?

From what I understand, in second order propositional logic, ∀¬x and ¬∀x are equivalent statements. Apparently these are not equal. ¬∀x ≡ ∃¬x However, rendered into the English language, consider ...
2
votes
2answers
159 views

And/or in total negation: “Some people are not able to interpret and/or analyze”

In the following sentence, the “and/or” seems odd in a case of total negation: Evidently some people are not able to interpret and/or analyze at that deeper level. Because the sentence says “are not ...
6
votes
1answer
158 views

Historical frequency of expression “and/or”: Corpus search

What is the historical frequency of the expression “and/or”? I have a feeling that I almost never see it in older texts, but that it is has become exponentially common in the past five or ten years. ...
-2
votes
2answers
104 views

No possibilities are ruled out

Suppose that two binary (yes-no) qualities are being considered. Often (yes, actually!) I want to express that all four combinations are possible: yes-yes, yes-no, no-yes, no-no. Is there a concise ...
2
votes
2answers
344 views

Unambiguous Way of Stating a Biconditional in Plain English

I am having a hard time understanding this section in Wikipedia's article on Logical biconditionals: Colloquial usage One unambiguous way of stating a biconditional in plain English is of the ...
5
votes
6answers
630 views

Is there a common English phrase for the 'so absurd it must be true' logical fallacy?

There are various common (often Latin) phrases for various logic fallacies, such as post hoc ergo propter hoc, argumentum ad populum, slippery slope fallacy, etc. Is there a common phrase used to ...
6
votes
6answers
781 views

The word 'not' often doesn't mean total negation in mathematical sense?

Consider the following conversations: X1: I paid $10 for that hamburger. Y1: That's not cheap! X2: I pay $1 for broadband Internet access. Y2: That's cheap! X3: I paid $1 for a hot ...
-1
votes
2answers
301 views

Double negations [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Is there a rule about double negations that aren't meant as double negations (e.g. “We don't need no education”)? Meaning of “you don't need no memory” and ...
4
votes
3answers
938 views

'Therefore' in an illogical logic sense

I have a co-worker that is always saying "Therefore, A B C" when the "A B C" isn't a conclusion from any sort of deductive reasoning. For example, Me: ... thus, that's how it works. Her: I ...