Questions pertaining to logical constructs

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592 views

How do definitions of words imbue meaning? [closed]

How do definitions of words imbue meaning? To give you a gist of what I try to discover, I'll define a collection of sets of words and show that their intersection contains all 'circular defined' ...
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1answer
233 views

Why is there no word for and/or? [closed]

It seems like it would be really useful to have a single word like "anor" instead of the clunky "and/or" construction that people use. After all, "or" by itself is usually used to mean "exclusive or" ...
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1answer
82 views

Is this a logically symmetric relation: “X must be consistent with Y”

Does it follow that if I make the statement "X must be consistent with Y" that "Y must be consistent with X"? I'm hoping to hear this answered from a linguistics perspective, specifically related to ...
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2answers
151 views

What is the difference between “It is raining” and “'It is raining' is true?” [closed]

"It is raining." "'It is raining' is true." Does "is true" make any difference? Thanks. This link gives context to this question and testify that I'm not a nut (yet).
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4answers
380 views

Justifying one wrong thing by comparing it its opposite which is also wrong

Is there a word or name for the phenomenon or syndrome in which people try to defend one wrong thing by comparing it something that is total opposite of it but also wrong? For example: Drone ...
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1answer
284 views

Discrete data vs cumulative data [closed]

1)Can we use discrete data as antonym for cumulative data ? 2)can discrete data be cumulative data? Simple yes/no in both cases would suffice.
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3answers
224 views

Name for logical fallacy of “implied guilt”?

For example; "No puppies were harmed in the making of this soda", implying that puppies are generally harmed in the production of soda, and thus casting the competition in a bad light. Is there a ...
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3answers
324 views

Is English particularly well suited for so-called “natural language programming”?

Programming languages like sEnglish, Inform7, WolframAlpha, and even AppleScript purport to use the "natural language programming" (NLP) paradigm. Even SQL is a kind of NLP, if you think about it. ...
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1answer
160 views

Logical fallacy brain-freeze

There must be a name for this sort of after-the-fact non-argument. Sorry, this is the only way I could find to describe it. Debbie finds a kitten. Kitten has been burned over half its body, but ...
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1answer
91 views

Designators, quantifications and predicates in Predicate Logic [closed]

So, I got my Predicate Logic exercises back, and I had apprently made one mistake. What is annoying is that I don't know why. The taks was to identify all the designators and predicates in a certain ...
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1answer
70 views

Is 'an eye' a designator?

I realize this may be a super-rookie question, but I have to ask. It is in connection with my logic module. Is 'an eye' in this sentence a designator? I was told to keep an eye on him I know ...
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1answer
379 views

(GRE) Parallel Structures

The following is a sample question taken from the revised version of the ETS-administered Graduate Record Examination (GRE). I normally try hard to understand the logic behind selecting the choices ...
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1answer
65 views

Many to one or many to many

Record A is linked to case 1 Record B is linked to case 2 Record C is linked to case 3 Which of the following sentences is correct? There are 3 records linked to a case There are 3 ...
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2answers
262 views

At least two or more: Not always redundant?

At least two or more Is the “or more” bit above ever not redundant? Seems absolutely redundant to me, but it gets about 170 million Google hits, and many from government sites and university ...
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1answer
132 views

What does “Graduates from business school or Economics with mathematical background” mean?

Hello I have a question about "English logic". For instance on a job offer I see this requirement: Graduates from business school or economics with mathematical background. So If I ...
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4answers
883 views

What's the logical fallacy where people dismiss what you say as irrelevant to the real-world?

Quite often I see derision about ideas by people who label them as 'too academic'. Often this appears to result from laziness or an unwillingness to stretch their thinking. What's the logical ...
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1answer
97 views

Which logical fallacy pushes through something as though it were fact and creates a point of contention afterwards to distract? [closed]

For example: "To corrupt society by allowing violent video games is something only a mother could understand." The point of contention is likely to be the latter part, where you'd be tempted to say ...
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3answers
448 views

Difference between “not every” and “every … is not”

I've always understood that you can order the words not and every (or similar words) in the following two ways to convey distinct logical meanings. Every human is not a man. There is no human being ...
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2answers
2k views

Cut the lights on

This expression is commonly used in the southern United States from Oklahoma to Virginia, and is patently illogical, and yet fails to inspire any consternation or lack of semantic connection. On a ...
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1answer
149 views

Logical Argument

Is the conclusion true here? Either Peter did not know it or Sarah did know it. But Peter did know it. Therefore, Sarah did know it.
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2answers
82 views

“Only for A, B, and C”: Includes cases where not all are present? [closed]

After submitting the report, changes can be made only for the font size, margins, and line spacing. Does this sentence imply that changes can be made only if all three types of changes are ...
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2answers
126 views

Responding with a basic fact to imply a point of view is clearly flawed or wrong

What is a word or concept that describes a situation where one person puts forth a point of view, and another person does not directly address the position, but instead responds with an obvious, basic ...
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2answers
436 views

Hypernym for “conjunction” and “disjunction”

Is there a hypernym for conjunction and disjunction, in their logical senses? Just using "junction" doesn't seem right to me.
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1answer
205 views

Does the use of the word 'itself' defy logic? [closed]

In simple arithmetic the basic operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division are all binary. That means you need two numbers, one on each side of the operation, for an expression ...
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1answer
188 views

Can “refute” be used with “that” clauses, and if so, what is the meaning?

I refute that A is B. If this structure is ok, which of the following does it mean: I argue that A is not B. I argue against some other position (such as X is Y), by arguing that A is B.
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8answers
22k views

“Neither can live while the other survives”— does it make logical sense?

At the end of the fifth book of Harry Potter, "The Order of Phoenix", there is a prophecy concerning Harry Potter and Lord Voldemort: The one with the power to vanquish the Dark Lord ( Lord ...
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1answer
2k views

Meaning of “either”: “not /A or B/” = “not /either A or B/”?

In a positive sentence, "either . . .or" is sometimes used to express an exclusive disjunction. However, what happens when “either” is used in negation, as in sentence two below? Is the meaning the ...
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7answers
14k views

“All that is gold does not glitter”

"All that is gold does not glitter" is the first line of a poem from the Lord of the Rings and it's supposed to mean "not all gold glitters" but I'm struggling to see how this can be deduced. If all ...
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2answers
729 views

What's the difference between “Not Completely True” and “Completely Not True”?

From what I understand, in second order propositional logic, ∀¬x and ¬∀x are equivalent statements. Apparently these are not equal. ¬∀x ≡ ∃¬x However, rendered into the English language, consider ...
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2answers
253 views

And/or in total negation: “Some people are not able to interpret and/or analyze”

In the following sentence, the “and/or” seems odd in a case of total negation: Evidently some people are not able to interpret and/or analyze at that deeper level. Because the sentence says “are not ...
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2answers
124 views

Without, free from, lacking, etc.: Unambiguous total negation with “OR”?

In the following, “does not cause” seems to be clear negation, and total negation requires “or”, therefore: The widget does not cause deformities or cracks However, it is unclear to me whether ...
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2answers
1k views

Does the plural include the singular?

Does the plural include the singular? And if so, in what sort of cases? This question has arisen because of the example sentence below. Amendment shall be permitted only in cases of: 1. deletion ...
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1answer
216 views

Historical frequency of expression “and/or”: Corpus search

What is the historical frequency of the expression “and/or”? I have a feeling that I almost never see it in older texts, but that it is has become exponentially common in the past five or ten years. ...
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2answers
117 views

No possibilities are ruled out

Suppose that two binary (yes-no) qualities are being considered. Often (yes, actually!) I want to express that all four combinations are possible: yes-yes, yes-no, no-yes, no-no. Is there a concise ...
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2answers
498 views

Unambiguous Way of Stating a Biconditional in Plain English

I am having a hard time understanding this section in Wikipedia's article on Logical biconditionals: Colloquial usage One unambiguous way of stating a biconditional in plain English is of the ...
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2answers
585 views

Double negations [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Is there a rule about double negations that aren't meant as double negations (e.g. “We don't need no education”)? Meaning of “you don't need no memory” and ...
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3answers
994 views

What is the opposite of modal?

Is there a word for the opposite of modal? Particularly, is there a word for the opposite of modal in the logical sense of relating to the modality between propositions? In other words, is there a ...
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3answers
3k views

What does “an A/B metaphor” mean?

I wonder what "an A/B metaphor" means, for example, in the following quote from Wikipedia about formal language: "In some applications, especially in logic, the alphabet is also known as the ...
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3answers
175 views

Can I express future action without the exclusion of former activity?

Consider the following scenario. Someone is hired for a job and is new to the career field. For instance, a new accountant. After being an accountant for a very short period of time, and doing an ...
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2answers
401 views

Is there a term for it when you use an obviously false statement to highlight the falsity or absurdity of another?

For example, person A states something. Person B says "And pigs fly" to imply person A was wrong. If there's no term for it, what could you call that that sounds smart?
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2answers
647 views

All X are Y. Then Some Y is X? [closed]

I have the following statement: All the actors are girls. All the girls are beautiful. The conclusions are given below: Conclusions: 1)All the actors are beautiful. 2)Some girls are actors. My ...
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5answers
3k views

The size of my confusion is “second to none”

Why "second to none" is being considered as "the best" instead of "the worst" (almost non existent)? To my understanding - "none" is "nonexistent", while "second to none" should be... well... almost ...
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5answers
2k views

Can I say “We don't must”, any alternative using a modal verb if I can't?

Let me explain. Suppose someone says "We must play a game now". I disagree, but only on that we have to do it. I shouldn't answer "We must not" because I would be saying that the game is not to be ...
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2answers
487 views

Improper usage of “subsequently” in the latest Futurama episode?

In the latest Futurama episode, called Cold Warriors, the professor says the following: The common cold died out 500 years ago and subsequently humanity lost all resistance to its ravages. ...
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1answer
5k views

Difference between “subsequently” and “consequently”?

When studying and reading course material in "softer" sciences that are descriptive the word "subsequently" appears in a way like "and subsequently" ...what does it mean, disctinct from "consequently" ...
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2answers
650 views

“There is no doubt this is arguably wrong”

This is from a review of something: There is no doubt that the (product name) is arguably the best consumer (product category name) currently on the market. I stopped for a while after reading ...
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5answers
18k views

“If” vs “Only if” vs “If and only if”

If I said: Yell only if I fall. Would the person have to yell once I fell? Sources of confusion Wikipedia This guy
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3answers
1k views

'Therefore' in an illogical logic sense

I have a co-worker that is always saying "Therefore, A B C" when the "A B C" isn't a conclusion from any sort of deductive reasoning. For example, Me: ... thus, that's how it works. Her: I ...
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7answers
4k views

Does 'some' necessarily imply 'not all'?

If some X's are Y's, does that imply that some X's are not Y's?
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6answers
894 views

Is there a common English phrase for the 'so absurd it must be true' logical fallacy?

There are various common (often Latin) phrases for various logic fallacies, such as post hoc ergo propter hoc, argumentum ad populum, slippery slope fallacy, etc. Is there a common phrase used to ...