Questions pertaining to logical constructs

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10answers
133 views

Boolean OR in English

What is the English equivalent of boolean-OR, which conveys the meaning of "either of the options or both", as opposed to XOR, which conveys the meaning of "strictly one or the other"? "Either or ...
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0answers
45 views

How multiple quantifiers in a sentence are interpreted

Someone sleeps everyday. Does this mean that there is someone who sleeps everyday or that everyday someone sleeps?
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2answers
26 views

Is “to take part to join us” a valid sentence?

I've seen it quite many times but it sounds like it repeats same thing twice?
9
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7answers
844 views

Word or term for an argument that is inherently true

What do you call an argument/position that is impossible to counter because it depends on undefined adjectives/adverbs? Examples: Good websites are the ones that are effectively designed. ...
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1answer
62 views

Why do people use the word “or” when offering a translation?

I have encountered many times speakers & authors who use the word "or" in the process of translating. Here is an example I ran across tonight: Could you keep a different kind of fast such as a ...
5
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2answers
108 views

Would the rejection of an argument because of a grammatical error be a type of logical fallacy?

Many people may have experienced situations (often online) where someone dismisses another's argument not on the merits of the argument, but because of a grammatical (or, more generally, mechanical) ...
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3answers
185 views

How do definitions of words imbue meaning? [closed]

How do definitions of words imbue meaning? To give you a gist of what I try to discover, I'll define a collection of sets of words and show that their intersection contains all 'circular defined' ...
1
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1answer
63 views

Why is there no word for and/or? [closed]

It seems like it would be really useful to have a single word like "anor" instead of the clunky "and/or" construction that people use. After all, "or" by itself is usually used to mean "exclusive or" ...
0
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1answer
39 views

Is this a logically symmetric relation: “X must be consistent with Y”

Does it follow that if I make the statement "X must be consistent with Y" that "Y must be consistent with X"? I'm hoping to hear this answered from a linguistics perspective, specifically related to ...
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2answers
112 views

What is the difference between “It is raining” and “'It is raining' is true?” [closed]

"It is raining." "'It is raining' is true." Does "is true" make any difference? Thanks. This link gives context to this question and testify that I'm not a nut (yet).
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4answers
110 views

Justifying one wrong thing by comparing it its opposite which is also wrong

Is there a word or name for the phenomenon or syndrome in which people try to defend one wrong thing by comparing it something that is total opposite of it but also wrong? For example: Drone ...
0
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1answer
70 views

Discrete data vs cumulative data [closed]

1)Can we use discrete data as antonym for cumulative data ? 2)can discrete data be cumulative data? Simple yes/no in both cases would suffice.
1
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2answers
70 views

Name for logical fallacy of “implied guilt”?

For example; "No puppies were harmed in the making of this soda", implying that puppies are generally harmed in the production of soda, and thus casting the competition in a bad light. Is there a ...
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3answers
147 views

Is English particularly well suited for so-called “natural language programming”?

Programming languages like sEnglish, Inform7, WolframAlpha, and even AppleScript purport to use the "natural language programming" (NLP) paradigm. Even SQL is a kind of NLP, if you think about it. ...
0
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1answer
130 views

Logical fallacy brain-freeze

There must be a name for this sort of after-the-fact non-argument. Sorry, this is the only way I could find to describe it. Debbie finds a kitten. Kitten has been burned over half its body, but ...
0
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1answer
44 views

Designators, quantifications and predicates in Predicate Logic [closed]

So, I got my Predicate Logic exercises back, and I had apprently made one mistake. What is annoying is that I don't know why. The taks was to identify all the designators and predicates in a certain ...
0
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1answer
67 views

Is 'an eye' a designator?

I realize this may be a super-rookie question, but I have to ask. It is in connection with my logic module. Is 'an eye' in this sentence a designator? I was told to keep an eye on him I know ...
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1answer
197 views

(GRE) Parallel Structures

The following is a sample question taken from the revised version of the ETS-administered Graduate Record Examination (GRE). I normally try hard to understand the logic behind selecting the choices ...
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1answer
43 views

Many to one or many to many

Record A is linked to case 1 Record B is linked to case 2 Record C is linked to case 3 Which of the following sentences is correct? There are 3 records linked to a case There are 3 ...
4
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2answers
136 views

At least two or more: Not always redundant?

At least two or more Is the “or more” bit above ever not redundant? Seems absolutely redundant to me, but it gets about 170 million Google hits, and many from government sites and university ...
1
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1answer
99 views

What does “Graduates from business school or Economics with mathematical background” mean?

Hello I have a question about "English logic". For instance on a job offer I see this requirement: Graduates from business school or economics with mathematical background. So If I ...
4
votes
4answers
447 views

What's the logical fallacy where people dismiss what you say as irrelevant to the real-world?

Quite often I see derision about ideas by people who label them as 'too academic'. Often this appears to result from laziness or an unwillingness to stretch their thinking. What's the logical ...
0
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1answer
78 views

Which logical fallacy pushes through something as though it were fact and creates a point of contention afterwards to distract? [closed]

For example: "To corrupt society by allowing violent video games is something only a mother could understand." The point of contention is likely to be the latter part, where you'd be tempted to say ...
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3answers
224 views

Difference between “not every” and “every … is not”

I've always understood that you can order the words not and every (or similar words) in the following two ways to convey distinct logical meanings. Every human is not a man. There is no human being ...
3
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2answers
397 views

Cut the lights on

This expression is commonly used in the southern United States from Oklahoma to Virginia, and is patently illogical, and yet fails to inspire any consternation or lack of semantic connection. On a ...
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2answers
59 views

Logical Argument

Is the conclusion true here? Either Peter did not know it or Sarah did know it. But Peter did know it. Therefore, Sarah did know it.
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2answers
77 views

“Only for A, B, and C”: Includes cases where not all are present? [closed]

After submitting the report, changes can be made only for the font size, margins, and line spacing. Does this sentence imply that changes can be made only if all three types of changes are ...
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2answers
90 views

Responding with a basic fact to imply a point of view is clearly flawed or wrong

What is a word or concept that describes a situation where one person puts forth a point of view, and another person does not directly address the position, but instead responds with an obvious, basic ...
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2answers
209 views

Hypernym for “conjunction” and “disjunction”

Is there a hypernym for conjunction and disjunction, in their logical senses? Just using "junction" doesn't seem right to me.
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1answer
147 views

Does the use of the word 'itself' defy logic? [closed]

In simple arithmetic the basic operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division are all binary. That means you need two numbers, one on each side of the operation, for an expression ...
0
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1answer
66 views

Can “refute” be used with “that” clauses, and if so, what is the meaning?

I refute that A is B. If this structure is ok, which of the following does it mean: I argue that A is not B. I argue against some other position (such as X is Y), by arguing that A is B.
8
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3answers
3k views

“Neither can live while the other survives”— does it make logical sense?

At the end of the fifth book of Harry Potter, "The Order of Phoenix", there is a prophecy concerning Harry Potter and Lord Voldemort: The one with the power to vanquish the Dark Lord ( Lord ...
0
votes
1answer
814 views

Meaning of “either”: “not /A or B/” = “not /either A or B/”?

In a positive sentence, "either . . .or" is sometimes used to express an exclusive disjunction. However, what happens when “either” is used in negation, as in sentence two below? Is the meaning the ...
18
votes
7answers
6k views

“All that is gold does not glitter”

"All that is gold does not glitter" is the first line of a poem from the Lord of the Rings and it's supposed to mean "not all gold glitters" but I'm struggling to see how this can be deduced. If all ...
4
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2answers
333 views

What's the difference between “Not Completely True” and “Completely Not True”?

From what I understand, in second order propositional logic, ∀¬x and ¬∀x are equivalent statements. Apparently these are not equal. ¬∀x ≡ ∃¬x However, rendered into the English language, consider ...
2
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2answers
159 views

And/or in total negation: “Some people are not able to interpret and/or analyze”

In the following sentence, the “and/or” seems odd in a case of total negation: Evidently some people are not able to interpret and/or analyze at that deeper level. Because the sentence says “are not ...
1
vote
2answers
104 views

Without, free from, lacking, etc.: Unambiguous total negation with “OR”?

In the following, “does not cause” seems to be clear negation, and total negation requires “or”, therefore: The widget does not cause deformities or cracks However, it is unclear to me whether ...
4
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2answers
704 views

Does the plural include the singular?

Does the plural include the singular? And if so, in what sort of cases? This question has arisen because of the example sentence below. Amendment shall be permitted only in cases of: 1. deletion ...
6
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1answer
159 views

Historical frequency of expression “and/or”: Corpus search

What is the historical frequency of the expression “and/or”? I have a feeling that I almost never see it in older texts, but that it is has become exponentially common in the past five or ten years. ...
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2answers
104 views

No possibilities are ruled out

Suppose that two binary (yes-no) qualities are being considered. Often (yes, actually!) I want to express that all four combinations are possible: yes-yes, yes-no, no-yes, no-no. Is there a concise ...
2
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2answers
344 views

Unambiguous Way of Stating a Biconditional in Plain English

I am having a hard time understanding this section in Wikipedia's article on Logical biconditionals: Colloquial usage One unambiguous way of stating a biconditional in plain English is of the ...
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2answers
304 views

Double negations [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Is there a rule about double negations that aren't meant as double negations (e.g. “We don't need no education”)? Meaning of “you don't need no memory” and ...
0
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3answers
600 views

What is the opposite of modal?

Is there a word for the opposite of modal? Particularly, is there a word for the opposite of modal in the logical sense of relating to the modality between propositions? In other words, is there a ...
2
votes
3answers
1k views

What does “an A/B metaphor” mean?

I wonder what "an A/B metaphor" means, for example, in the following quote from Wikipedia about formal language: "In some applications, especially in logic, the alphabet is also known as the ...
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3answers
166 views

Can I express future action without the exclusion of former activity?

Consider the following scenario. Someone is hired for a job and is new to the career field. For instance, a new accountant. After being an accountant for a very short period of time, and doing an ...
4
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2answers
214 views

Is there a term for it when you use an obviously false statement to highlight the falsity or absurdity of another?

For example, person A states something. Person B says "And pigs fly" to imply person A was wrong. If there's no term for it, what could you call that that sounds smart?
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2answers
415 views

All X are Y. Then Some Y is X? [closed]

I have the following statement: All the actors are girls. All the girls are beautiful. The conclusions are given below: Conclusions: 1)All the actors are beautiful. 2)Some girls are actors. My ...
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5answers
1k views

The size of my confusion is “second to none”

Why "second to none" is being considered as "the best" instead of "the worst" (almost non existent)? To my understanding - "none" is "nonexistent", while "second to none" should be... well... almost ...
6
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5answers
1k views

Can I say “We don't must”, any alternative using a modal verb if I can't?

Let me explain. Suppose someone says "We must play a game now". I disagree, but only on that we have to do it. I shouldn't answer "We must not" because I would be saying that the game is not to be ...
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2answers
321 views

Improper usage of “subsequently” in the latest Futurama episode?

In the latest Futurama episode, called Cold Warriors, the professor says the following: The common cold died out 500 years ago and subsequently humanity lost all resistance to its ravages. ...