Questions relating to the scientific study of language.

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0
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1answer
18 views

Who did the dog which the farmer who the cat licked own chase

Is this sentence ill-formed syntactically and pragmatically/ or ill-formed pragmatically and semantically/ or well formed semantically syntactically, pragmatically/ or ill-formed syntactically and ...
19
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3answers
4k views

Why is it “ladies and gentlemen” instead of “gentlemen and ladies”? [duplicate]

Is there a specific reason for this? After all, it is "boys and girls", rather than "girls and boys". If the boy (male) comes first here, why doesn't it come first in "ladies and gentlemen"?
2
votes
1answer
254 views

Substitution or Ellipsis? (Linguistics)

I want to ask a question which is not clear for me. In an exam, we were given such a question that it says which of the following dialogues doesnt have ellipsis. Two most possible answers are these ...
7
votes
4answers
1k views

Linguistics term for word choice

I was taught a word once by a linguist. I can't remember it, but it would be very useful for a Google search I am trying to do to solve another question on a different StackExchange. It was a similar ...
3
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1answer
218 views

Is there a linguistic term for “word pairs” where the masculine term is positive but its feminine equivalent is not?

The feminine form usually has a neutral to negative range of meanings. e.g. master (“a man who controls things”) x mistress (“a woman who is having sex with a married man”) governor (“the chief ...
4
votes
1answer
59 views

Why is it half and not second?

5th is fifth, 4th is fourth, 3rd is third, 2nd is second. People in races come fifth, fourth, third, and second. Divisions are one fifth, one fourth, one third, and one half? Why is it one half and ...
1
vote
1answer
162 views

How to identify a complex verbal group?

In this instance, does 'as' function as a conjunction or as an adverb? (1) 'Their circumstances are not nearly the same as those of the people feeling their homelands.' Would you classify 'fulfill ...
1
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2answers
107 views

What is a syntactic construction?

Okay, I'm not quite sure if i'm allowed to post this here. I had a look at the linguistics SE, but it seems that questions there have to be research-level, and this is extremely elementary however I ...
0
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2answers
75 views

I'm not sure how to mark the clause boundaries

I'm trying to mark clause boundaries (main, subordinate & embedded clause); I can't play my own devil's advocate anymore, would be so grateful if anyone could weigh in on this: Sentence: With ...
3
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0answers
38 views

Doubt about the relationships in the Semantic Triangle [migrated]

I was reading the wiki on The Semantic TriangleWikipedia, but it is not as good, so I have few doubts: As I read on many places an example for the vertices could be (I may have written ...
3
votes
1answer
65 views

Word for a situation where you must make a different choice than another person

I'm trying to describe a situation that you face when both you and another person must make a choice, but the outcome of both choices depends on the other person's choices, leading you and the other ...
-1
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0answers
17 views

Which linguistic epoch did the evaluative form of germinal adverbs become integrated into Olde English?

^see above Hi there. I'm researching for my thesis and I came across the following quandary. Please advise if you can.
1
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2answers
50 views

Not quite a sentence [duplicate]

What word or phrase adequately describes a series of words which may have a distinct meaning, but fail to adhere to normal grammatical rules? In particular, they might not have any finite verb or even ...
7
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6answers
411 views

Word meaning “its meaning stands alone”

This is a linguistic term I came across recently, but I can't quite remember it - and searching for it is downright impossible! The word implies that context is not required for a particular word. ...
6
votes
1answer
1k views

What are words similar in spelling but differing in meaning called?

I frequently encounter "vs" words like: prodigal vs prodigious ingenuous vs ingenious affluent vs effluent These words are very similar but not identical in spelling, and have different meanings. ...
-6
votes
1answer
107 views

How many words are there in English if we don’t count duplicates? [closed]

How many words are there in English if: we don't count plurals: 'dogs' doesn't count; only 'dog' counts. we don't count different conjugations or different tenses: 'walks', 'walked' and 'walking' ...
0
votes
2answers
46 views

Relationships between Grammar and Phonetics

When I look at some grammar rules such as: With (He, she and it) we add (es) to verbs ending with (sh, o, ch and ss) in present simple, and so on. I wonder if there is a link between grammar and ...
6
votes
4answers
236 views

Is there a term for using one language's syntax with another's words?

I'm trying to remember a word the Mac OS X Word of the Day screensaver showed me a few days ago. It's something along the lines of "using one language's words with another's syntax or grammar". This ...
59
votes
8answers
5k views

“kinda”, “sorta”, “coulda”, “shoulda”, “lotta”, “oughta”, “betcha”, “tseasy” etc. What are these?

In linguistics, is there a term describing this phenomenon, i.e., when the syllables of two words are slurred together in the spoken language? They are not contractions. While contractions are ...
2
votes
3answers
78 views

Is there an online site or API that provides definitive, uncensored translations of internet slang words?

I am a computer scientist studying on sentiment analysis. I need to retrieve uncensored translations of internet slang words such as wtf, lmfao. There are some websites that provide translations for ...
1
vote
1answer
59 views

I am trying to decide if I can consider myself a native English speaker [duplicate]

I was born in Amsterdam, Holland. I learnt Dutch from my parents and in school. Around the age of 5-6 I started learning English. I watched English television and had English conversations with my ...
1
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4answers
306 views

What's the name for when a word changes its pronunciation because of how people read?

With greater literacy in the past 100 years, most English speakers are also proficient at writing. Sometimes due to the great divide between English spellings and the true pronunciation, people will ...
9
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6answers
2k views

What is the name of the phoneme produced in an upper-class Briton's pronunciation of the word “Duke”? What's different in the articulation?

When someone with a Received Pronunciation accent pronounces the word duke, as in The Duke of York, he doesn't pronounce it with a "hard" 'd', as one might pronounce the word duh, but a softer type ...
6
votes
3answers
832 views

Explanation and rules for adding and subtracting 'r's in British pronunciation?

For example, the sentence, "The Premier of China drank vodka and beer in his car with Obama." A BBC presenter would pronounce it like: The Premieh of Chiner drank vodker and bee'h in his ca' with ...
13
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1answer
6k views

Is there a maximum number of suffixes that can be added to an English word?

You can add various derivational and inflectional suffixes on to most English words to create new longer words (or forms of words). But is there a definite or theoretical maximum that can be added in ...
4
votes
2answers
883 views

Term for when a negative word is used positively?

Many years ago I heard a linguistics professor use a term to describe when negative words evolve to express positive opinions. For example, African Americans began in the 1970s to say "bad" when ...
3
votes
1answer
67 views

Theoretical Phonemes [closed]

I have been looking at IPA recently and I was wondering if there are any sounds that can theoretically be created by humans but do not exist or have not existed in any known languages. Or maybe a ...
0
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0answers
43 views

Is Lana's “Yup!” a triphthong?

At some point in the Archer series, Lana starts saying very emphatic Yup!s. I was recently wondering about triphthongs and whether they occur in English, and found the Wikipedia entry had only a few ...
1
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0answers
36 views

A term for “combining of related phrases”

Sometimes two related phrases are reached for simultaneously. I recently heard a newscaster combine "standpoint" and "point of view," so that his sentence began "from a football standpoint of view..." ...
7
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4answers
317 views

Ambiguous syntax tree and phrase structure rules

I’m studying for a final for my English Linguistics class and going through example sentences that we should be able to draw syntax trees for. The sentence He looked at the dog with one eye was marked ...
5
votes
1answer
154 views

Can the word “group” function as a determiner?

Here are some example sentences that show my thought process: Some cats are playing with each other. Okay, it seems obvious that "some" is a determiner. A number of cats are playing with ...
5
votes
1answer
116 views

What do you call an interfix that has semantic meaning?

At university I was introduced to various affixes; prefix, suffix, interfix. The latter, I was told, could be created by putting an adjective in the middle of a word, thus interrupting it; ...
0
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0answers
24 views

What adjectives would you use to describe a sound that is Sharp, Rough, Tonal, Fluctuating? [closed]

The describing words can be single words or phrases. For example one can say a sharp sound is piercing !
2
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0answers
36 views

Meaningless “Do” And the supposed relationship between English and the Celtic languages [duplicate]

The verb "do" often serves a meaningless purpose in questions. John McWhorter argues in his book "Our Magnificent Bastard Tongue" that this is a direct influence of the Celtic languages. In all of my ...
4
votes
1answer
66 views

John ate vs John is too stubborn to talk to

I was intrigued by an observation made by Noam Chomsky in this video, namely that if we take the sentence John ate an apple and drop an apple to get John ate John ate an apple. John ate. we ...
1
vote
1answer
127 views

What does the term 'De Facto' mean?

After stumbling across this term, and looking up it's corresponding definition, I find myself very dissatisfied with how it's defined. For example, the official definition is this: 'in fact, whether ...
3
votes
1answer
79 views

For words that can be a noun or not a noun, why does the noun have the emphasis at the start?

There are some pairs of words that can act as a noun or not a noun (a verb or an adjective. For instance: rebel present compact Why is it that the noun version of these words have their emphasis ...
0
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1answer
33 views

What is the linguistic name for sentence with “even though”? [closed]

What is the specific name for a sentence that contains the words "even though"?
0
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0answers
28 views

In phonetic transcription of Australian English, is the schwa (ə) ever nasalised?

In linguistics we've been looking at phonetic transcriptions. In words that have been reduced in conversation (i.e. /ænd/ has become [ən]) is the schwa nasalised? I know that in Australian English ...
2
votes
1answer
101 views

What is the opposite of “intensifier?”

Adverbs, adverbial phrases, or devices of any sort that are used to add force or emphasis to the meaning are called "intensifiers." I wonder if there is a name for phrases that caste some doubt on the ...
1
vote
2answers
84 views

What word describes the act of converting a phrase into its opposite?

Turning a phrase negative (e.g. good → not good, and a question → not a question) is called negation. One can say "I negated the phrase". What is the act of turning a phrase into its opposite (e.g. ...
0
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0answers
33 views

infinitive vs present participle in subject control sentence

Over three consecutive sessions, Oscar averaged 80% independence identifying the letter "A". Over three consecutive sessions, Oscar averaged 80% independence to identify the letter "A". I believe ...
0
votes
1answer
87 views

Is “apps” a concatenation?

I am aware that "apps" is commonly used as a plural form of "app" in this time and age, which in itself is an abbreviation of "application". But if I assume that "apps" is actually formed from ...
0
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4answers
102 views

Is this statement nonsensical?

The experience of transition1 requires negotiation between sacrifice and opportunity I asked this on philosophy.SE a while ago. Most agreed that the statement is nonsensical: You cannot ...
0
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0answers
40 views

Arrangement of Words and Omission of “of”s

Could you list the difference between the terms "set functionality", "set of functionality", "functionality set" and "functionality of a set"? For example, the terminology is used here: And ...
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votes
4answers
268 views

What is a gender neutral word to describe an individual? [duplicate]

Before I begin, I'd like to point out that my primary interests aren't actually in literature/linguistics, but within the domain of music. However, I have come accross a problem I feel is of much ...
2
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1answer
815 views

Why do we say 'year 1993' as “nineteen ninety three” instead of “one thousand nine hundred ninety three”?

Why do we read some calendar years by their two-digit place value and not according on their numerical place value like: 1500s as fifteen hundreds and not one thousand five hundreds 1895 as ...
8
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2answers
1k views

How much of the English language comes from each of its influences?

I was watching a video linked in this answer and it made the following claim: [...] like most words in English is derived from German. That got me thinking. While I know that Germanic languages ...
4
votes
11answers
574 views

Is there a phrase for someone being ashamed of, or self-conscious about their accent when moving to another region?

I was reading a book about accents at a local library and there was a chapter where the author says "some varieties of a language are more aesthetically pleasing than others". Some accents are ...
0
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2answers
122 views

Verbal analogy: sweet _ness_ is to suffix as boat _swain_ is to … In other words, what is the term for the _swain_ morpheme?

At some point in the past I encountered the following verbal analogy: SWEET NESS : SUFFIX :: BOAT SWAIN : ? In my view, the question is asking what one would term the "swain" morpheme in ...