How to cite things in English.

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18
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3answers
46k views

Abbreviation “n.d.” in citation?

I’ve just come across “n.d.” used as an abbreviation, as a bibliographic reference in an academic essay, along the lines of: Smith (n.d.) discusses the subaquaeous pliability of rattan fibres… ...
12
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3answers
4k views

Is the Latin abbreviation “f” (folio) commonly used in page ranges?

When citing from an inclusive range of two consecutive pages such as pages 25 and 26, one can write 25–26 or 25f I know this is a question of style, but I am having little luck with Google ...
9
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3answers
83k views

If I quote only the middle part of a sentence, do I use ellipses?

For example, if Peter is my source, should I say: Peter mentioned his '... unquenchable thirst, a fatigued body...' as being part of the reason for his actions. Or would I have to leave out the ...
9
votes
1answer
421 views

How to cite an author who spells his name inconsistently

I am writing a paper where I will cite several works by the Hungarian mathematician Gábor Szegő. Note that his surname includes the letter o with a double acute accent, NOT a letter o with umlaut ö. ...
8
votes
3answers
6k views

Is “et al.” acceptable for citations with exactly two authors?

I have a bunch of information from a source, but the authors names are particularly long; is it acceptable (in MLA) to use "et al." for exactly two authors, e.g., “The Corpus juris not only ...
8
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2answers
4k views

Whence “emphasis mine”?

Writers often highlight part of a quotation to emphasize the point they're making. They use a variety of phrases to indicate that the emphasis did not appear in the original text. In order of current ...
7
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2answers
2k views

When citing a French citation in the original, should the guillemets (angle quotes) be changed? What about punctuation order?

I’ve come across a puzzling punctuation problem! I’m working on a document in US English. It includes a citation of a French text in the original French, and this citation includes a citation (all in ...
5
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4answers
255 views

Can we authenticate the claim that “grungy” was used to mean “envious or jealous” in 1920s slang?

A recent question on EL&U asks "Where did the 1920s slang word "grungy" (meaning "envious") originate, if the modern word "grungy" (meaning "dingy") ...
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4answers
3k views

Is there a symbol out there capable of denoting a chapter in a citation?

When citing like [Source, ch.number], is there a particular symbol that could or should replace the "ch." abbreviation?
4
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2answers
396 views

Plagiarism: How to cite the citation of your source? [closed]

I am being prosecuted by my school for plagiarism. However, I had no idea I was plagiarizing. They claim I incorrectly cited my source. But I beg to differ. Generally, how does one cite a source's ...
4
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2answers
1k views

How to cite an author who does not capltalize her name if you are beginning a sentence with her name

If you are writing a paper and citing works by an author/researcher who does not capitalize her name, how do you begin a sentence using the author's name?
3
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3answers
291 views

Citing a Shakespearean Play: What Constitutes a “Line”?

According to many sources that I've searched, it seems that the in-line citations for dramatic works, such as Shakeaspearean plays, are cited in the following form: act.scene.line(s). So for example, ...
3
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1answer
627 views

Should I capitalize a person's last name if their name starts with a lower case letter but it's the first word in the sentence?

I'm trying to cite someone in a paper I'm writing whose name is "[First-name] de Soya". In my field it's common to cite papers using the "et al." style ("In their seminal paper, de Soya et al. […] ...
3
votes
3answers
257 views

What is the name for right-aligning a citation on the last line of a paragraph?

Is there a term for when you layout a paragraph with a right-aligned citation on the last line, like this: Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Phasellus quam mauris, tincidunt ...
3
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1answer
835 views

What is the correct way to format an author's name in an APA citation when only a username is known? [closed]

I am trying to cite the image at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Shoe-parts-en.svg. However, how would I cite the autors/contributors, since I don't know their actual name. Do I just cite their ...
2
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5answers
140 views

Term for putting someone else's name on one's work?

This is the "Later Letters of Paul" effect, also seen in historic Chinese philosophical writings. One uses the name of a famous or canonical figure to lend credence or divine attribution to one's own ...
2
votes
2answers
148 views

Citing publications with stylized titles

In a situation where the title of a work is stylized, e.g. "Choose the Red Pill and the Blue Pill", should this title be fully italicized as Choose the Red Pill and the Blue Pill when cited? It ...
2
votes
1answer
242 views

How do I cite a Stack Exchange answer in MLA? [closed]

I'd like to cite an answer to a Stack Exchange question in an MLA-format paper. What's the correct way to do this? Should I cite the specific answer I'm using, or the question page as a whole, and if ...
2
votes
2answers
56 views

Citation of internet webpages that have limited lifetimes [closed]

Some websites, especially news websites, either leave up content for limited periods, or archive content after a few days and charge readers to access their archives. It seems to me that citations in ...
2
votes
1answer
115 views

Is there such a thing as a sentence sign?

Many of us are familiar with the section sign (§) and the paragraph sign or pilcrow (¶), but is there a sign, symbol, or mark meant to denote a sentence? Potentially, such a mark could be used for ...
2
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2answers
3k views

Proper way to cite Wikipedia according to the Chicago Manual of Style?

In The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed., it actually lists two ways to cite Wikipedia content. The first, in section 14.245, is of the form: "Style Guide," Wikipedia, last modified July 18, 2008, ...
2
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1answer
84 views

Changing case within quoted text

I'm familiar with the convention that square brackets may be used within quoted text to indicate word[s] that aren't actually present [in that exact form] in the original. It's often necessary where ...
2
votes
1answer
100 views

Inline citation for source refrenced a second time [closed]

I'm using IEEE citation style. If information is cited from one source, then another, then again from the first how does the inline citation work? Take the following made up example: Dogs make ...
2
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1answer
208 views

Citing a name with punctuation at the end

I'm using IEEE citation and the title of the work I am trying to cite has punctuation at the end. I'm unsure how to proceed because part of the citation includes putting a period at the end of the ...
2
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1answer
73 views

What is the most common word for indicating a source of the citation? (e.g. Source:/Reference:/From:) [closed]

For example, The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. From: Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sun What is the bestmost common word for the above bold part? From, ...
2
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1answer
702 views

How to cite when describing a protocol?

I am writing a paper that involves the description of numerous internet protocols. Because of the rigidity of these protocols, it's difficult for any one description to sound much different from any ...
2
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1answer
126 views

How do I cite a page in my own book?

Every so often I want to ask the reader to look back at a page in the current book they have in their hands (my Ph. D. thesis). If I write something like Critically, breaking a mathematical task ...
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2answers
295 views

What does an italic “a” immediately before a year stand for?

Some citations in the OED have an italic a before the year to indicate the year is uncertain, for example: a​1556 N. Udall Ralph Roister Doister (?1566) iii. iv. sig. E.iijv, By gosse and for ...
1
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1answer
224 views

Can I use “linkography” instead of “bibliography” when referring to web links?

I’m writing a piece of documentation and I want to add the links I'm referring to at the bottom of my document. Since they are links and not books, I think the section title should not use the word ...
1
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2answers
4k views

Cite a Powerpoint Presentation [closed]

I'm writing my Junior paper and found several powerpoint presentations online. Now, I'm working on the bibliography and my English teacher doesn't know how to cite them and every site I've visited has ...
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2answers
812 views

How to cite a court case?

I am unsure on how to cite a court case. The one I am trying to cite is Riley v. California. The information I can plainly see is Court of Appeal, Fourth Appellate District Division One State ...
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2answers
433 views

What is the correct way to quote (and cite) computer code using the Chicago style?

I would like to quote from line 205 to 214 of a particular source code.
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2answers
139 views

Commas with quotes [duplicate]

I read the following sentence1: He rallied the Senate with the plea, “It’s time to change the Senate before this institution becomes obsolete.” I’m wondering whether a comma should be placed ...
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1answer
2k views

How should an author cite a page and line number range that spans across multiple pages?

Authors are occasionally required to cite to a reference by page and line number. For example, many adjudicatory boards require briefs to cite to references by paragraph number, if possible, and ...
1
vote
1answer
96 views

What is the proper way to cross-reference a section within the same document?

I'm updating a user manual which references other sections within the same document. Currently the cross references look like this: Lorem ipsum blah blah (see "Formigulating the whatzit"). I ...
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1answer
88 views

Comma position with citation [closed]

This question regards Vancouver referencing, though I suppose the issue could really arise regardless of what is contained in the in-text citation. Consider the sentence: As dogs are mammals they ...
1
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1answer
3k views

How to Cite a Supreme Court Syllabus in Chicago Style?

I'm trying to cite the syllabus of a Supreme Court case in Chicago Style (Notes and Bib). Help?
1
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1answer
283 views

How to cite a poem, with a quote that is on multiple non-contiguous lines?

I have to cite a quote from a poem that is on multiple lines that are not next to eachother. How would I do this? "This is my quote" (line1 - line 2) OR "This is my quote" (line1 .. line2) ?
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2answers
250 views

Is it acceptable to drop the Jr. suffix in a citation?

I want to cite a book written by John P. Smith, Jr. Should I write see Smith [2009] for details. or see Smith, Jr. [2009] for details. I think my question boils down to: is his surname ...
1
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1answer
168 views

What punctuation mark should I use? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: What is the proper use of [square brackets] in quotes? What do brackets in a quote mean? When I add information beside a word in a Bible verse, what bracket should I ...
1
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0answers
24 views

In-text citations for a play without Acts, Scenes, Pages, or Line Numbering [closed]

Our class is reading Oedipus the King, which has no Acts or Scenes. Furthermore, our teacher decided to use this version, from Gutenberg.org. This presents two further problems: the edition has no ...
1
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2answers
64 views

With a direct quote—placement of a comma separating dependent and independent clauses: inside the close quotation mark or after the citation?

I have been looking for the answer to this for some time. I get close, but never find the exact answer (or question for that matter). In the following sentence, should the comma fall after ...
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0answers
17 views

Quoting non-contiguous paragraphs [duplicate]

How do I quote two non-contiguous paragraphs from a longer article? I want to be clear that they're non-contiguous, but not have an editorial interlude between them. Here's an example quotation from ...
0
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2answers
2k views

Correct form for a page range? [closed]

Is, for example, "pp. 1567–93" an acceptable way to denote pages 1567 through 1593? In what contexts must you always write it in long form "pp. 1567–1593" instead? Also, what about in the case of ...
0
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1answer
11k views

Citing editor's footnotes in MLA style [closed]

I wish to cite an editor's footnotes in an annotated copy of Milton's Paradise Lost. I have no idea how to go about this. I'm not sure what either the in-text or complete citation look like. The ...
0
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1answer
52 views

Use of “courtesy of…” when citing?

There are a number of systems for citing various materials (MLA, APA, etc.). These vary by discipline, country, journal, level of formality, and so on. Obviously one should know which system should be ...
0
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2answers
673 views

If quoting only an extract of dialogue from a fiction book, do you still need to have quotes within quotes? [closed]

I need to show kids how to write a book review. I am writing a book review as an exemplar to show them how it's done. However, I got stuck when it came to citing extracts of dialogue. My question is ...
0
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1answer
148 views

What does […] in the middle of a quote mean? [duplicate]

"'I'm simply defending a Negro- his name is Tom Robinson [...] Scout, you aren't old enough to understand some things yet, but there's been some high talk around town to the effect that I shouldn't do ...
0
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1answer
990 views

What does “corp.” mean in the context of MLA citation? [closed]

From this webpage it has a section to enter the information about the author that is labeled "Last / corp." What is corp? Is it short for the corporation, as in the one publishing the article?
0
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1answer
134 views

Ordering of question mark, closing quotation mark, and citation [closed]

Let's say I am quoting the verse "Do you like cheese?" from the Book Of Cheese. Is it: As it is written, "Do you like cheese?" (Book Of Cheese, 43:21) or As it is written, "Do you like cheese" ...