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17
votes
3answers
27k views

Abbreviation “n.d.” in citation?

I’ve just come across “n.d.” used as an abbreviation, as a bibliographic reference in an academic essay, along the lines of: Smith (n.d.) discusses the subaquaeous pliability of rattan fibres… ...
11
votes
3answers
2k views

Is the Latin abbreviation “f” (folio) commonly used in page ranges?

When citing from an inclusive range of two consecutive pages such as pages 25 and 26, one can write 25–26 or 25f I know this is a question of style, but I am having little luck with Google ...
9
votes
3answers
54k views

If I quote only the middle part of a sentence, do I use ellipses?

For example, if Peter is my source, should I say: Peter mentioned his '... unquenchable thirst, a fatigued body...' as being part of the reason for his actions. Or would I have to leave out the ...
9
votes
1answer
296 views

How to cite an author who spells his name inconsistently

I am writing a paper where I will cite several works by the Hungarian mathematician Gábor Szegő. Note that his surname includes the letter o with a double acute accent, NOT a letter o with umlaut ö. ...
8
votes
3answers
4k views

Is “et al.” acceptable for citations with exactly two authors?

I have a bunch of information from a source, but the authors names are particularly long; is it acceptable (in MLA) to use "et al." for exactly two authors, e.g., “The Corpus juris not only ...
6
votes
1answer
232 views

When citing a French citation in the original, should the guillemets (angle quotes) be changed? What about punctuation order?

I’ve come across a puzzling punctuation problem! I’m working on a document in US English. It includes a citation of a French text in the original French, and this citation includes a citation (all in ...
5
votes
4answers
185 views

Can we authenticate the claim that “grungy” was used to mean “envious or jealous” in 1920s slang?

A recent question on EL&U asks "Where did the 1920s slang word "grungy" (meaning "envious") originate, if the modern word "grungy" (meaning "dingy") ...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

Is there a symbol out there capable of denoting a chapter in a citation?

When citing like [Source, ch.number], is there a particular symbol that could or should replace the "ch." abbreviation?
4
votes
2answers
223 views

Plagiarism: How to cite the citation of your source? [closed]

I am being prosecuted by my school for plagiarism. However, I had no idea I was plagiarizing. They claim I incorrectly cited my source. But I beg to differ. Generally, how does one cite a source's ...
4
votes
2answers
785 views

How to cite an author who does not capltalize her name if you are beginning a sentence with her name

If you are writing a paper and citing works by an author/researcher who does not capitalize her name, how do you begin a sentence using the author's name?
3
votes
3answers
197 views

What is the name for right-aligning a citation on the last line of a paragraph?

Is there a term for when you layout a paragraph with a right-aligned citation on the last line, like this: Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Phasellus quam mauris, tincidunt ...
3
votes
1answer
325 views

What is the correct way to format an author's name in an APA citation when only a username is known? [closed]

I am trying to cite the image at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Shoe-parts-en.svg. However, how would I cite the autors/contributors, since I don't know their actual name. Do I just cite their ...
2
votes
2answers
112 views

Citing publications with stylized titles

In a situation where the title of a work is stylized, e.g. "Choose the Red Pill and the Blue Pill", should this title be fully italicized as Choose the Red Pill and the Blue Pill when cited? It ...
2
votes
1answer
124 views

How do I cite a Stack Exchange answer in MLA?

I'd like to cite an answer to a Stack Exchange question in an MLA-format paper. What's the correct way to do this? Should I cite the specific answer I'm using, or the question page as a whole, and if ...
2
votes
2answers
49 views

Citation of internet webpages that have limited lifetimes [closed]

Some websites, especially news websites, either leave up content for limited periods, or archive content after a few days and charge readers to access their archives. It seems to me that citations in ...
2
votes
1answer
84 views

Inline citation for source refrenced a second time [closed]

I'm using IEEE citation style. If information is cited from one source, then another, then again from the first how does the inline citation work? Take the following made up example: Dogs make ...
2
votes
1answer
52 views

What is the most common word for indicating a source of the citation? (e.g. Source:/Reference:/From:) [closed]

For example, The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. From: Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sun What is the bestmost common word for the above bold part? From, ...
2
votes
1answer
467 views

How to cite when describing a protocol?

I am writing a paper that involves the description of numerous internet protocols. Because of the rigidity of these protocols, it's difficult for any one description to sound much different from any ...
2
votes
1answer
162 views

Citing a name with punctuation at the end

I'm using IEEE citation and the title of the work I am trying to cite has punctuation at the end. I'm unsure how to proceed because part of the citation includes putting a period at the end of the ...
2
votes
1answer
109 views

How do I cite a page in my own book?

Every so often I want to ask the reader to look back at a page in the current book they have in their hands (my Ph. D. thesis). If I write something like Critically, breaking a mathematical task ...
1
vote
2answers
1k views

Correct form for a page range? [closed]

Is, for example, "pp. 1567–93" an acceptable way to denote pages 1567 through 1593? In what contexts must you always write it in long form "pp. 1567–1593" instead? Also, what about in the case of ...
1
vote
2answers
244 views

What does an italic “a” immediately before a year stand for?

Some citations in the OED have an italic a before the year to indicate the year is uncertain, for example: a​1556 N. Udall Ralph Roister Doister (?1566) iii. iv. sig. E.iijv, By gosse and for ...
1
vote
1answer
163 views

Can I use “linkography” instead of “bibliography” when referring to web links?

I’m writing a piece of documentation and I want to add the links I'm referring to at the bottom of my document. Since they are links and not books, I think the section title should not use the word ...
1
vote
2answers
524 views

How to cite a court case?

I am unsure on how to cite a court case. The one I am trying to cite is Riley v. California. The information I can plainly see is Court of Appeal, Fourth Appellate District Division One State ...
1
vote
2answers
3k views

Cite a Powerpoint Presentation [closed]

I'm writing my Junior paper and found several powerpoint presentations online. Now, I'm working on the bibliography and my English teacher doesn't know how to cite them and every site I've visited has ...
1
vote
1answer
758 views

Proper way to cite Wikipedia according to the Chicago Manual of Style?

In The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed., it actually lists two ways to cite Wikipedia content. The first, in section 14.245, is of the form: "Style Guide," Wikipedia, last modified July 18, 2008, ...
1
vote
2answers
142 views

What is the correct way to quote (and cite) computer code using the Chicago style?

I would like to quote from line 205 to 214 of a particular source code.
1
vote
2answers
108 views

Commas with quotes [duplicate]

I read the following sentence1: He rallied the Senate with the plea, “It’s time to change the Senate before this institution becomes obsolete.” I’m wondering whether a comma should be placed ...
1
vote
1answer
62 views

Comma position with citation [closed]

This question regards Vancouver referencing, though I suppose the issue could really arise regardless of what is contained in the in-text citation. Consider the sentence: As dogs are mammals they ...
1
vote
1answer
1k views

How to Cite a Supreme Court Syllabus in Chicago Style?

I'm trying to cite the syllabus of a Supreme Court case in Chicago Style (Notes and Bib). Help?
1
vote
1answer
64 views

Changing case within quoted text

I'm familiar with the convention that square brackets may be used within quoted text to indicate word[s] that aren't actually present [in that exact form] in the original. It's often necessary where ...
1
vote
1answer
154 views

How to cite a poem, with a quote that is on multiple non-contiguous lines?

I have to cite a quote from a poem that is on multiple lines that are not next to eachother. How would I do this? "This is my quote" (line1 - line 2) OR "This is my quote" (line1 .. line2) ?
1
vote
2answers
189 views

Is it acceptable to drop the Jr. suffix in a citation?

I want to cite a book written by John P. Smith, Jr. Should I write see Smith [2009] for details. or see Smith, Jr. [2009] for details. I think my question boils down to: is his surname ...
1
vote
1answer
148 views

What punctuation mark should I use? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: What is the proper use of [square brackets] in quotes? What do brackets in a quote mean? When I add information beside a word in a Bible verse, what bracket should I ...
1
vote
0answers
71 views

Middle English Date citations in Oxford English Dictionary [closed]

I have seen some citations in the OED that use dates such as 'c. 1295', which I assume to mean 'circa 1295'. However, I have also seen dates that appear as 'a. 1393' - what does this 'a' stand for? ...
1
vote
0answers
16 views

Quoting non-contiguous paragraphs [duplicate]

How do I quote two non-contiguous paragraphs from a longer article? I want to be clear that they're non-contiguous, but not have an editorial interlude between them. Here's an example quotation from ...
0
votes
1answer
9k views

Citing editor's footnotes in MLA style [closed]

I wish to cite an editor's footnotes in an annotated copy of Milton's Paradise Lost. I have no idea how to go about this. I'm not sure what either the in-text or complete citation look like. The ...
0
votes
1answer
65 views

What does […] in the middle of a quote mean? [duplicate]

"'I'm simply defending a Negro- his name is Tom Robinson [...] Scout, you aren't old enough to understand some things yet, but there's been some high talk around town to the effect that I shouldn't do ...
0
votes
1answer
298 views

What does “corp.” mean in the context of MLA citation? [closed]

From this webpage it has a section to enter the information about the author that is labeled "Last / corp." What is corp? Is it short for the corporation, as in the one publishing the article?
0
votes
1answer
93 views

Ordering of question mark, closing quotation mark, and citation [closed]

Let's say I am quoting the verse "Do you like cheese?" from the Book Of Cheese. Is it: As it is written, "Do you like cheese?" (Book Of Cheese, 43:21) or As it is written, "Do you like cheese" ...
0
votes
1answer
44 views

Ibid source citing source [closed]

I have a source (source A) citing source B and source C in the next citation number. I want to cite both B and C. So obviously, I should cite A, B, and C. how should I do this? Source B ...
0
votes
2answers
96 views

How to make a citation for a sentence that is used in my own context?

I have read something from an author and I think I would like to use part of his idea in my own context. But how should I cite the author so that it isn't misleading? Let me give an example. Suppose ...
0
votes
1answer
59 views

Where can I find a good list of MLA citation formats? [closed]

I am working on programing a citation generator. It will only make citations in MLA format. Does anyone know where I can find a good MLA citation form resource
0
votes
2answers
70 views

Does MLA require intext citations to include author's last name if you introduced his name earlier in your work? [closed]

I'm a bit unsure if I can go about excluding author last names in citations for a paper I've been writing. I have to compare two characters from different stories in the same anthology. I have quotes ...
0
votes
1answer
163 views

Citing a book where no formatting of text is possible

In forums such as this, where it's not possible to format the title of a question, is there an appropriate way to refer to a title of a book? For example, in this question I enclose the title of a ...
0
votes
1answer
27 views

Proper notation for citation covering multiple consecutive lines

I am writing corrections for a document. There is one error I have spotted on a line. Then I have recognized that the same error occurs again on the next line as well. Say that the first occurrence ...
0
votes
1answer
31 views

Is this in-text citation correctly punctuated?

I wonder if the following punctuation I made in my literary translation for an in-text citation is correct in conventional English. Or should I omit the period after parentheses? Or should I omit the ...
0
votes
1answer
1k views

Using a quote from someone other than the original article author

I am writing a synthesis paper and have ran across a couple quotes using in an article that I will be contrasting with another article. In the article written by Esther Shein she includes the quote ...
0
votes
1answer
71 views

In my example, how do I use in-text citation? [closed]

I'm writing an economics research paper based on my professors journal. We only use one reference, and that is my professor's journal article. I want to use a sentence which has in-text citations. I ...
0
votes
1answer
41 views

How to use in-text citation for a sentence in an article that also uses in-text citation?

I want to use in-text citation about a sentence I'm borrowing from a journal article. But I'm confused on how to properly use it because the journal article also uses in-text citations on the same ...