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My wife and I are playing a game where you roll dice and move so many spaces in a grid "vertically or horizontally".

In the use of English it is very common to say, this or the other when it comes to making a choice (exclusive or). Now I know that "or" can also be inclusive, for example "she couldn't read or write", or can be clearly used as an xor "you either come or not" making the statement true for only one of the options but not both.

My issue is where it is not clear whether it is an inclusive/exclusive or, the best example being our game.

I argue that you can move in either direction (inclusive) and the normal use of this conjunction in English should be inclusive unless specified otherwise.

Is this right?

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The linguists here may not agree, but, in matters like this, my marriage counselor would advise you to go with whichever interpretation she thinks is correct. :^) –  J.R. Dec 27 '12 at 3:07
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“Roll a dice”? You mean roll a die, right? –  tchrist Dec 27 '12 at 3:20
    
You might look at this question. –  tchrist Dec 27 '12 at 3:48
    
I can see why you might think it means either in the sense of both here, but without knowing the game rules better, I cannot say whether it requires that pieces be moved only in straight lines. See updated answer. –  tchrist Dec 27 '12 at 4:36
    
The English or is either inclusive or exclusive or both (or neither?). –  Kris Dec 27 '12 at 6:09

2 Answers 2

up vote 7 down vote accepted

I agree with you (and have written to this effect here) that English or is ambiguous.

Alongside your “she couldn’t read or write” and Andrew Lazarus’ “You must be crazy or stupid” there are ordinary constructions like “Help yourself to chicken or ribs or chili or whatever strikes your fancy” and “I like Dickens better than Trollope or Scott or Thackeray” in which or is clearly not exclusive. If it were not so, lawyers and technical writers would never trouble to insert “but not both” to specifically exclude an inclusive reading, just as they insert “or both” to specifically exclude an exclusive reading.

Under ordinary circumstances, the context makes clear which meaning is intended. If a waiter tells you you may have mashed potatoes or fries with your steak, both of you know perfectly well he means one or the other but not both. On the other hand, if he asks if you would like coffee or dessert you do not understand him to forbid your ordering both coffee and a slice of pie.

But when there is no such context I would follow tchrist this far: the default reading is exclusive.

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Yes, I always insert that "or both" to ensure that the conjunctive possibility exists whenever it does. So I'd agree that it's inherently ambiguous except in restaurants where only one cup of tea or coffee and one piece of pie or cake comes with the meal: you don't get both and you know it. In Chinese restaurants, of course, it's always "one from column A and one from column B". –  user21497 Dec 27 '12 at 4:27
    
This is a great answer, just so you know I took my examples from the iPhone dictionary, they all could be used as inclusive unless noted otherwise. As an English learner I have heard many times phrases like "she couldn't read or write" (also taken from the iphone example) which sounds dumb yet are commonly used... Very confusing, this brings some clarity, thanks. –  Onema Dec 27 '12 at 4:50

In English, or is always disjunctive. There is no ambiguity.

It is either one or else it is the other. It is not both. That is why when it could be both, one always says “one or the other or both”. The or does not admit the possibility that both may apply. So you have to add or both if you want both to be a possibility.

In other words, it corresponds to the computer’s xor operation, not to the computer’s or operation. The English or is really an xor.

As Bill notes in a comment, it is always grammatically disjunctive. So “Either Peter or Paul is coming to dinner with Mary” demands a singular verb, and you should set two places at the table, not three.

If you said that in chess, the queen can move any number of unblocked spaces either vertically or horizontally, you know that she cannot do both at the same time. However, with your own game, I cannot say, because I do not know its rules. The question comes down to whether you have to move in a straight line in the game you are playing, and I do not know your game.

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I don't think the or in "You must be stupid or crazy to believe that!" is strictly exclusive. –  Andrew Lazarus Dec 27 '12 at 3:19
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Along with what @Andrew said, I can think of other examples where or would function more like an or than an xor, like when a pro scout says, "We should try to get a quarterback who is strong or mobile," or when a woman says, "I'd like to marry a man who is handsome or rich." I'm not sure it's "always" disjunctive; there are times when "both would be acceptable, if not even better" can be inferred from the context. –  J.R. Dec 27 '12 at 3:50
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"Or" is always disjunctive grammatically, which means that if the two NPs it disjoins are singular, the verb that follows is also singular: "George or Martha was murdered in Miami", but conjunctive grammatically gives "George and Martha were murdered in Miami". "My late mother-in-law couldn't read or write" (= could neither read nor write) (true fact) is similarly grammatically disjunctive but semantically conjunctive because it means that she was unable to do both. More proof that terminology explains nothing unless it's precisely & clearly defined. –  user21497 Dec 27 '12 at 4:19
    
I think the negation ("couldn't read or write") makes or semantically conjunctive in this phrase. Neither writing nor reading was {her métier / one of her skills} is grammatically disjunctive but semantically conjunctive. –  user21497 Dec 27 '12 at 4:53

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