DISPUTE vs. ARGUE:
Interestingly, "dispute" can serve as a
noun or verb, as in:
We settled the dispute in arbitration.
Sir, I dispute your research.
"Argue"(a verb) means, in part, to dispute(!)
another person's claims, logic, opinions,
conclusions, and more. The verb's
connotation indicates a heated exchange, while
its cognate, "argument", is a noun which may
or may not connote a heated exchange.
His argument was logical, concise, and
quite persuasive. (not heated)
An argument broke out between the
"Dispute"(as a noun), on the other hand,
denotes a disagreement, which may or may not
be heated. In a civil suit, for example,
strong feelings may be involved, but its
purpose is to resolve the dispute in a
calm, reasonable way. The lawyer
for the defendant marshals his arguments
supporting his client's innocence, while
the lawyer for the plaintiff disputes(as a
verb) the opposing lawyer's arguments by
objecting to them and/or by crafting her own
arguments supporting her client's
claims. A judge and/or jury decides
who wins or loses the dispute.
In short, to argue is to disagree sharply
with someone, whereas to dispute is to take
exception to someone's point of view,
conclusion, or rights. Examples :
Jim and I argued about the money I lent him.
Jim disputed my claim that the money I
lent him was a loan.
Fred argued against my claim that he
owed me money.
Your disputing my claim is simply out of
line and entirely unfair.
Her argument distilled her main points in
a few well-chosen words.
I hope this helps.