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My first question here.

I am wondering whether expressions like the ones in the tittle are just expressions or represent another thing in the english language.

I will give you some more examples so you can understand me. Very often I read sentences like these:

  • When studying the brain waves of people in the flow, researchers find the slow alpha rhythms typical of meditation.

  • When clicking the 'search button' I discovered a bug.

  • When playing soccer I feel good.

Are above sentences well written?

I want to know if this is a simple use of gerund or an expression and how to use it. After the 'when+gerund' part which verb tense can I use?

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This typical construction is perfectly correct and frequently used. I believe it is usually considered an abbreviated form of the full adverbial clause "when [they were] studying...": subject and auxiliary verb are simply left out because they can easily be inferred (ellipsis).

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Those are not gerunds because you are not using the phrase as a noun. Here is a gerund phrase serving as the subject of a sentence:

Playing soccer makes me feel good.

Your example is a participial phrase:

When playing soccer I feel good.

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