What's the English name of the oi sound written as "eu" and commonly found in Germanic words like Deutschland, and names like Euler and von Neumann?
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There's no single word for it. It’s the diphthong /ɔɪ/, a glide which ‘begins between back half-open and open positions, moves upwards and forwards towards [ɪ]; lips open rounded changing to neutral’ (‘Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language’).
The oi sound is a phonemic diphthong, one of the three main German diphthongs.
It is a combination of the "open mid-back rounded vowel", like in "dog" in American English, and the "near-close near-front rounded vowel", which doesn't exist in American English.
The referenced links below have audio clips to hear the vowels.