I am looking for this definition because of the book Quarry for Middlemarch, which my lit professor said was George Eliot's notebook for all her research for her novel, but all of the definitions I have found so far don't really talk about quarry meaning anything like notebook.
Quarry doesn't mean notebook - it means the place you go to dig out useful rocks/minerals.
So "Quarry for Middlemarch" is where all the building material to write the novel came from
I suspect Ms Evans was using the second meaning.
Although it is odd, in my opinion, to refer to any collection you put together yourself as a "quarry"; quarries are naturally occurring sources. Maybe she was make a weak pun with "quarto", which refers to paper of a particular size (usually about 286 by 222 mm, close to 8.5"x11").