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For example, after I run one mile I start to sweat. So should I say

I'm likely to sweat.

Or if there is any other expression more accurate?

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You probably need to elaborate on your question. Why is "likely to sweat" not acceptable? – coleopterist Nov 14 '12 at 16:53
If it is a given, you could say I'm guaranteed to sweat. – cornbread ninja 麵包忍者 Nov 14 '12 at 17:00
If you always sweat after a mile, you could simply say, "I sweat after running a mile." There are a couple of interesting questions about tense, starting with english.stackexchange.com/questions/91122/… – Andrew Leach Nov 14 '12 at 17:05
This is not a simple sentence; it's the ruins of a deceased complex sentence and requires archaeological exhumation. Out of context, it's just not clear how much you want to assert, and how much you want to imply or presuppose instead. Are you talking about certainty or probability? Are you predicting or commenting on inevitability? Is it intended to be generic or specific? Etc. – John Lawler Nov 14 '12 at 17:59
The speaker's gender is also relevant - ladies are never "likely to sweat", since they only glow – FumbleFingers Nov 14 '12 at 18:05

To describe an outcome that is likely to occur, but is not guaranteed, you would say that the outcome is probable. For example,

It is probable that I will be late to work tomorrow.

However, if you are asking for your specific example, you would not use probable in that context. You could say "It is probable that I will sweat," but "I am probable to sweat" is not a common way to word that phrase. For your example, I would use either "I will probably sweat" or "I am likely to sweat".

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I found it's easy to imagine an American saying,

I'm sure gonna sweat.

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