Does the -igan suffix serve the same function in the following words?
If so, what does it mean? Where does it come from?
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Cardigan and hooligan probably come from the Welsh name Ceredigion and the Irish name Houlighan, respectively. The Welsh name Ceredigion means "Ceredig's land". There are a lot of Irish names that end in -gan, -han or -ghan. If we go by the etymologies I can find for Monaghan and Mulligan the -an is a diminuitive. So these two are not that closely related, but mulligan and hooligan may be, since they're both from Irish names ending with the same diminuitive.
I should point out that the Irish name O Huallachain can be spelled Houligan, Houlihan, or Houlighan in English, so these three suffixes indeed have the same origin.