Is "twin brothers" correct? Or is it also incorrect like "cousin brother"?
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Yes, "twin brothers" is a natural-sounding phrase. One could argue that the phrase is somewhat redundant; you could say:
but you could just as easily say:
without any loss of meaning. One exception, however, might be if the twins are named such that you can't readily tell if they are male or female; for instance:
In that case, you might want to say:
since both Robin and Kelly can be used as boy and girl names.
The phrase could also be applied to two people who aren't related – although that would be in a metaphoric sense. For example:
would mean that the two athletes played exceptionally well together, and almost had an innate sense of what the other one would do. (That phrase could work as a reference to the strange phenomena of twin telepathy, which is used to describe when twins have an uncanny ability to sense what the other one might do or feel.) As one coach of identical twin brothers said of his players:
Another example of non-relation usage might be:
might mean that Dave and Marty do a lot of things together. I could see that metaphor being used to describe, say, two college students who perhaps pledged the same fraternity, played on the same sports team, did a lot of extracurricular activities together, and took some of the same classes.
Lastly, you are correct in your assertion that "cousin brother" is largely nonsensical.
Those words mean different things. A cousin is a child of one's uncle or aunt. Twin brothers or sisters are, on the other hand, children born from the same pregnancy (as stated in this wiki article, for example). So while twins have the same parents, cousins don't.
Note, however, that according to this article, the word "cousin-brother" exists as well, and means "a male first cousin". I'm not a native speaker, but personally I would understand it's meaning if I heard it.
To my knowledge,
And cousin refers to a child of a person's aunt or uncle.
Twin definition: dictionary link
Cousin definition: dictionary link
A cousin-brother is someone who is both your cousin and your brother at the same time, because your parents were already related to each other by blood outside of marriage. It is now rare in Western culture, although it has not always been so. It was once common in the West for cousins to marry, and still is in some cultures. Boys born to such marriages are indeed cousin brothers, and are more related to each other than normal brothers are, since they are both brothers and also double second cousins at the same time.
A twin brother is one born in the same birth. It may be a monozygotic identical twin, a half-identical twin of either the polar or sesquizygotic variety, or a more run-of-the-mill dizygotic fraternal twin. It may even be that the twins are half-brothers sharing the same mother but having different fathers. But let’s let zygotes be zygotes, for no matter which of those applies, they are still called twins.
There also exists an older term, cousin-german (plural form: cousins-german), which simply meant one’s first cousin.