"Jolt into civility" here means to shock the purveyors of rancorous political discourse so much that they decide to abandon the hostility for a new spirit of public politeness.
When you probe around in an electrical outlet with a screwdriver, you are likely to get a jolt of electricity. Such a shock might convince you not to go poking screwdrivers into outlets. Your attitude toward such reckless exploration would probably be softened quite a bit, and you would be less reckless in the future. Experience keeps an expensive school, the saying goes, but a fool will learn in no other.
Too bad some people don't even learn from experience. The point of the article is that, far from having a chastening effect on those who spout angry or hateful political rhetoric, the murders in Tucson have in fact caused the ranters to spew more vitriol, louder and faster than before.