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I have two questions here, and they are both from an article at Economist.com. Here is the link: http://www.economist.com/blogs/schumpeter/2012/10/citi-loses-its-boss

The First Question: What does as mean in the 2nd sentence in the last paragraph but one:

An effort to provide a higher dividend payment to shareholders was rejected by Citi’s regulators as imprudent.

I understand it to be an adverb, but then I can't figure out what the whole sentence means.

The Second Question: What's the structure of the first sentence in paragraph 4, and how should I comprehend it:

Reaction to the appointment has been mixed, and that, in addition to Mr Pandit’s virtues, may have suppressed any bounce.

This is how I understand its structure: the reaction has suppressed any bounce, including Mr Pandit's virtues. And that doesn't make sense to me.

Does that refer to reaction? Does bounce mean rejection of a check, or something else? And what's with Mr Pandit's virtues?

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Welcome to ELU, zwangxian. If you have two questions that are not related, you really should ask them as two separate questions. Otherwise, it becomes very hard to choose a single "best answer". –  Marthaª Oct 17 '12 at 16:21
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closed as not a real question by MετάEd, Mark Beadles, simchona Oct 17 '12 at 19:26

It's difficult to tell what is being asked here. This question is ambiguous, vague, incomplete, overly broad, or rhetorical and cannot be reasonably answered in its current form. For help clarifying this question so that it can be reopened, visit the help center.If this question can be reworded to fit the rules in the help center, please edit the question.

2 Answers

The "as" in the first sentence can be replaced by "because they [Citi's regulators] thought it was.

The "that" in the second sentence refers to the mixed reaction generated by Mr Corbat's appointment to replace Mr Pandit. "Bounce" means a rise in the price of Citi's stock: "But the stock might have soared further.

It appears that Mr Pandit had some good points, viz., "waiving his salary for the first years after the financial crisis" and leading Citi to a modest recovery in earnings this year. Because I don't know anything about Pandit, I can't speculate on what the writer might have meant, and there's nothing else positive about him in the article.

But is anyone worth US$15 million in annual salary? This seems to vacate the judgment that he waived his salary and to suggest that he merely postponed it.

EDIT IN RESPONSE TO StoneyB'S SUGGESTION: That in the second sentence is a relative pronoun. And is a coordinating conjunction. In addition to is a phrase that functions as a coordinating conjunction; it can be replaced with plus or also.

"Reaction to the appointment has been mixed, and that, in addition to Mr Pandit’s virtues, may have suppressed any bounce."

Here are the three independent clauses that comprise this compound sentence:

(A) Reaction to the appointment has been mixed.
(B) [The mixed reaction] = That may have suppressed any bounce.
(C) [In addition to] = {Plus/Also}, Mr Pandit's virtues may have suppressed any bounce. {This isn't stylistically a good sentence. It's merely an illustration of how to literally translate the meaning using short, simple words.}

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I would say the as in the first sentence is closer to considered, deemed, etc., huh? –  Noah Oct 17 '12 at 12:02
    
@Noah: I think as has to be replaced with a longer expression, not just a verb, e.g., "because they {felt it was / thought it was / deemed it / considered it / believed it to be} imprudent", yes. Is this what you mean? –  user21497 Oct 17 '12 at 13:23
    
Yeah. You got it right. –  Noah Oct 17 '12 at 14:09
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This is how I understand its structure: the reaction has suppressed any bounce, including Mr Pandit's virtues.

The intended meaning is:

  • reaction has been mixed
  • Mr Pandit has virtues
  • these two factors together may have suppressed any bounce.
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1  
The three bulleted points are certainly a summary of the content of the original sentence. I don't think your sentence expresses the structure, though, because of the dangling gerund phrase "including Mr Pandit's virtues". Maybe "The (combination of the mixed) reaction and Mr Pandit's virtues have suppressed any bounce" works. –  user21497 Oct 17 '12 at 13:46
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