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For a process which isn't moving quickly enough, one can do things to expedite it. But for something which is a sluggish bottleneck and is not making any progress whatsoever, is there a more specialized word for "expediting" it?

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kickstart - to make something improve or become more active after it has stopped or slowed down.

Another definition that might fit OP's context better: To kick-start a process that has stopped working or progressing is to take a course of action that will quickly start it going again.

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Or jumpstart - impart fresh energy to, start/restart rapidly or forcefully – StoneyB Sep 28 '12 at 22:11

The phrase breaking a log-jam is sometimes used.

Also, if the reason for the lack of progress is bureaucracy, cutting through red tape.

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Invigorate (“To heighten or intensify”, “To give life or energy to”) is a possibility. Also reinvigorate (“To give new life, energy or strength to someone or something; to revitalize”). Note, revitalize means “To give new life, energy, activity or success to something”.

Also consider reanimate (“To animate anew; to restore to animation or life; to infuse new life, vigor, spirit, or courage into; to revive; to reinvigorate; as, to reanimate a drowned person; to reanimate disheartened troops; to reanimate languid spirits”), stir up (“arouse or excite passion or action”), instigate and its synonyms encourage, impel, incite, provoke, spur, stimulate, tempt, urge, and reawaken (“To reactivate or reanimate”).

Phrases light a fire under, get the ball rolling, and jumpstart (“start or re-start vigorously”) also are relevant.

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Was moribund, but ...
The till now moribund / bogged down project was ...

Given a new breath of life ...

I'd say that jwpat7's "revitalised" was a pretty good choice.

A new start

Getting things moving.

Taking the handbrake off.

Introduced a new broom / A new broom.
Cleared the temple (reference to Christ & merchants in temple)

Changed up two gears

A breath of fresh air

A new hand at the helm

A long overdue ...

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