Is there a good word for change in velocity, but not over time? That is, position is to displacement as velocity is to what?
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The standard term for a difference of velocities is delta-v.
(Sadly, I don't know enough TeX to include the equations here.)
The term "delta-V" has another, closely-related meaning that brings back a good deal of nostalgia, in this week of watching the Endeavour fly to its final home:
However, I think the analogy would be
Several disctionaries define acceleration without reference to direction of change
According to Webster's New World College
Compact Oxford defines it as
While acceleration is usually used to refer to an increase, it seems possible that it could be expressed as a negative number to show a decrease.
These are clearly general definitions and may or may not reflect the views of the scientific or engineering communities.