a word for " a person/politician asking to review/modify a newspaper article before it is published"
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closed as not a real question by RegDwigнt♦ Sep 16 '12 at 16:55
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Some terms like quote approval, veto power, and green light appear in a recent Guardian article on the subject of right-of-review.
Quote approval also appears in a recent CNN article, along with terms like on background (where interviewee insists on no quotes), Faustian bargain (as Dan Rather calls pre-publication-review agreements), and lapdogs (his term for journalists who agree to such provisions). I suppose that if you agree with the second term, you could call the person or politician asking to review or modify a newspaper article before publication Faust.
The verb redact (“To censor...”, “To black out text...”), mentioned in comment below, leads to nouns redaction (“The change or changes made while editing”, “The process of editing or censoring”) and redactor (“A person who redacts”). I think of redaction as occurring either post-publication (eg copies of a book or newspaper might have pages or articles removed) or in a document-release process (eg a letter or article may be reviewed and parts of it deleted before delivery or release) rather than before publication. However, the two senses of redaction quoted above seem to allow changes before publication, although the etymology of redact (essentially, “back action”) militates against that interpretation.
The term vetting is often used
The phrase sign off is also used