My friend asked me for a tool to do something and I wanted to ask him if he wants me to do it for him but I mistakenly said "I'll do it to you". Is that offensive?
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The sentence itself could be offensive, particularly because without any context, "do it" can be interpreted as sexual.
In the context you describe, though, it should be obvious that it was a mistake for "I'll do it for you."
If someone tells you that a remark offended them and you are not trying to start an argument, say it was a mistake, apologize, and that should be the end of it. If it isn't -- if the person insists on remaining offended -- there's nothing you can do. This person likes being offended so that he can complain about how terrible his life is. Shrug your shoulders and move on.
If you are a politician, take it for granted that anything you say that could possibly be interpreted to be offensive, will be so interpreted by opponents.
Prepositions are one of the most common mistakes made by 2nd language learners of English as they are often used in different contexts in different languages — what might be 'at' in English could be 'in' or 'of' in French, etc.
I doubt your friend would have given it a second thought, since I presume he knows you're learning English. Lots of things can be interpretted sexually if you try hard enough ;)