Sorry, I don't think I can use all the grammatical terms right, so I'll illustrate:
Peptide adsorption curves may cross [...] results in the inversion of peptide elution order.
I've found a lot about "which" and "that" in this question, and it says that generally those are interchangeable, but I haven't seen this particular use case mentioned there. (After writing this it occurred to me that the linked question discusses "which" and "that" as conjunctions, whereas this question is about them as relative pronouns. I got this from this answer. Correct me if I'm wrong) The only thing that might be applicable is the "rule of thumb" that
"Commas, which cut out the fat, go with which, never with that."
On this basis, "which" should be the only correct option, because that gap needs a comma. Is that so?