The pronunciation of device might actually be considered less predictable than the pronunciation of service (if we compare them to words like novice and crevice). But then again, in the word advice we have the same pronunciation as in device.
I'm going to ignore the v, since I don't think it adds much information. So, here are some overall tendencies I see for the pronunciation of words that end with -ice.
Monosyllabic words ending in -ice all have /aɪs/ (unless the i is part of a vowel digraph, as in voice, juce, sluice). Some examples: ice, price, spice, slice.
Polysyllabic words derived from these also have /aɪs/, such as de-ice, re-price, overspice.
Most other polysyllabic words ending in -ice have fully unstressed /ɪs/ or /əs/.
Of the words pronounced like this, most are nouns. There are some verbs, such as notice and apprentice, but they all have corresponding nouns spelled and pronounced the same way. In U.S. English, the verb practice also falls in this category. In British English the verb is spelled practise, although standardly pronounced the same as the noun. The OED has an interesting note about practise:
The word was originally stressed on the second syllable [...] and this is still the
case in some regional varieties, especially in Scots (hence such
spellings as practize, practeeze, practeese). The stress was
subsequently shifted to the first syllable, with devoicing of the
final consonant, probably by association with practice n.
Some examples, with the stressed vowel in bold: crevice, justice, lattice, notice, novice, artifice, avarice, edifice, orifice, accomplice, apprentice, interstice.
A small number of polysyllabic words have /aɪs/; as mentioned in other answers, these words always have primary or secondary stress on the last syllable. This category has a greater proportion of verbs. (The reason why I've discussed part of speech is that in English verbs are generally more likely than nouns to have some degree of stress on the final syllable; we can see this in contrasts like associate n. versus associate v., or the noun ending -ity versus the verb ending -ify.) As StoneyB mentions in a comment, the stress may also be affected when the first syllable of a word comes from a Latin prefix. (The first part of device is not exactly a prefix, though.) Here is a list of all the words like this I found, with the primary-stressed syllable in bold:
- advice n. (pairs with advise v.; from Latin prefix ad + past participle visum)
- device n. (pairs with devise v.; apparently ultimately from Latin dīvīs-/dīvidere)
- entice v. (from Vulgar Latin intitiāre, with the prefix in-)
- suffice v. (from Latin sufficere, with the prefix sub-)
- sacrifice n., v. (the OED says the verb was derived from the noun)
- satisfice v. (note: this word was coined by combining satisfy and suffice)
- cockatrice n. (however, this word is also pronounced with /ɪs/)
And there are a couple of words that are usually pronounced with stressed /iːs/: police, caprice. They were borrowed relatively recently from French, and don't show the signs of the Great Vowel shift.