In this context, the meaning is almost literally the way it sounds: Where are you standing? What is your position? What is your position in terms of your goals?
In a physical real world example, if you stood (were standing) in the middle of a room between the door you came in and the door that you wished to leave from, you would stand 50% towards your goal.
When they say with regard to the metrics of your goals, it just means that your goals are measurable. If you were halfway through a series of test cases of some technical matter, and someone were to ask you, "where do we stand in terms of test cases?" You could answer, "we're 50% of the way through."
It really does just mean some measurement of position. So to correctly substitute into your quote:
If your goals are measurable (as they should be), you can establish
baselines. Run tests to find out how far you have progressed with
regard to the metrics for your goals.
Although it doesn't apply to your particular case, the use of the word 'stand' can also be used less literally, but it still relates to position, even if it is more conceptual. For example, someone could ask, "where do you stand with respect to politics?" Although a bit more metaphorical or abstract it essentially means the same as before: 'what is your position?' You could answer, "I'm a republican", or "I'm a democrat", or "I'm a liberal." You could also say "I stand for equal rights for women," meaning you position yourself on the side favouring equal rights for women. You can even say, "I stand by my friend," meaning that whatever the circumstance, I will be by my friend to help regardless. You can even stand 'by your word', meaning you believe that between truth and lie, you stand beside the truth.