I'm a bit confused about this. Which expression is correct?
You can't just do that.
You just can't do that.
I'm trying to say:
You can't just bash an ideology because of what someone has said/done.
As with only, one should exercise care in carefully placing just. In your sentence, you want:
Because you want to be perfectly clear that just applies to because.
In the original pair of question, this one:
Applies just to do, whereas this one:
Applies just to can’t.
The two forms are both correct, but imply different things.
means that not only can you not do it, you really really cannot or that it is not open for debate; just is used here for emphasis: as in "that's just beautiful" or "I just love Picasso". (This tends to be used in less formal speech, especially in recent decades; it is also a common target for ironic use: "You crashed my car? Brilliant. Just brilliant.")
means that if you only do what you're suggesting, it's something that you cannot do, but raises the possibility of doing something else as well that would then enable you to do it: "you can't just walk up to the King and say hello; you at least have to bow first." "I can't just run a marathon; I need to train first."
means that you can bash an ideology because of what someone has said or done, but you should do more than bashing.
means that you cannot bash an ideology because of what someone has said or done, and I cannot believe anybody thinks you can.
means that what someone has said or done is insufficient for bashing an ideology, but in combination with something else it might provide sufficient reason.
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