There are a number of types of semi-transparent glass that can produce the effect you're talking about. As far as I know, windows made from these types of glass have no specific name -- they would be identified by the type of glass an purpose, e.g. a frosted glass skylight, or figured glass bathroom window, or glass block foyer wall.
Frosted glass windows are made from glass that has been textured via sandblasting, acid etching, or some similar process that changes one (or both) suraces so that they scatter light. The grain on the frosting determines how big the effect is -- frosted glass light bulbs have a very fine grain and have a fairly uniform whitish color (used for "soft" light bulbs). Coarser grains become more translucent, but produce a "blockier" image from the other side.
Figured glass is glass that has some sort of pattern (a "figure") stamped onto the glass while the plates are being rolled out. This is where you get things like shower doors that have blurry or bumpy patterns on them, where you can see the objects on the other side but very distorted. (This sounds the most like what you describe in your question.)
Finally, there is glass block (also called glass brick) which are small bricks of solid glass, which are often cast with a pattern, hollow portion, or distorted surface similar to figured glass. They serve a similar purpose but are used to construct entire architectural elements, such as walls, where both privacy and ambient light are desired.