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In books written in the nineteenth century, you can come across sentences like this (quoting from Ambrose Bierce's The Devil's Dictionary):

A Pilgrim Father was one who, leaving Europe in 1620 because not permitted to sing psalms through his nose, followed it [the pilgrim] to Massachusetts, where he could personate God according to the dictates of his conscience.

Another well-known writer in whose works I'm certain I found this kind of usage is Jane Austen.

I'm not sure I understand this usage.

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This is (close to?) the nominative absolute construction, as in en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nominative_absolute. What is slightly old-fashioned is the usage of the participle, not of because, I'd say. –  Mariano Jun 26 '12 at 5:28
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I see it as a simple case of omission. The longer sentence would in fact be:

A Pilgrim Father was one who, leaving Europe in 1620 because (he was) not permitted to sing psalms...

It makes sense too and not old-fashioned, archaic or anything. Because the writer is using a V+ing Participial Phrase ("leaving Europe"), it's better to just add another P.P. Participial Phrase ("not permitted").

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«because of not being permitted», too –  Mariano Jun 26 '12 at 5:29
    
Cool Elf, may I suggest you use the Blockquote when answering (the large " on the toolbar). It avoids the horizontal scrollbar when the line is long. –  Brian Hooper Jun 26 '12 at 5:34
    
So does that mean I can't use this in a sentence like this: "I couldn't make it because ill." –  Kaiser Octavius Jun 26 '12 at 5:55
    
@Brian, thanks for telling me that. I'll try it next time –  Cool Elf Jun 26 '12 at 7:15
    
@Kaiser, "because" is a Conjunction so it can't be followed by a Noun - or an Adjective like in your example –  Cool Elf Jun 26 '12 at 7:17
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