# What is the distinction between terms 'where', 'while', 'whereas' and 'whenever'? [closed]

It seems all of these four words can denote 'at the same time' or 'if and only if', but do the meanings of them identical?

Update: e.g.

1. Day comes where the sun rises.

2. Day comes whereas the sun rises.

3. Day comes while the sun rises.

4. Day comes whenever the sun rises.

Update: e.g.

1. An integer is even where it is divisible by 2.

2. An integer is even whereas it is divisible by 2.

3. An integer is even while it is divisible by 2.

4. An integer is even whenever it is divisible by 2.

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## closed as not a real question by Mahnax, Kit Z. Fox♦, Matt E. Эллен♦, FumbleFingers, jwpat7Jun 16 '12 at 15:08

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I think this question would be better with some specific examples illustrating your context. – Kit Z. Fox Jun 16 '12 at 3:31
Perhaps if you added a bit more context, example sentences, and some explanation of what you have found out so far, this question might be a better fit for this site. – Cerberus Jun 16 '12 at 3:32
Can you give some example sentences where you think all four can replace one another? – Mitch Jun 16 '12 at 3:32
OK, no problem. – Popopo Jun 16 '12 at 3:32
None of them mean "if and only if" in fact in English only "if and only if" means 'if and only if' but it can be abbreviated in formal logic proofs as iff. – Jim Jun 16 '12 at 4:15

"Whereas" does not match the other three, specifically "An integer is even whereas it is divisible by 2." is not a well-formed sentence.

"Whereas" indicates contrast, as in "I like tacos, whereas Jean likes hamburgers", etc.

"Whereas" can also be used in very formal contexts to indicate causality or logical flow, but I don't think the usage you cite works for this.

It is OK to say, "Whereas the sun has risen, day has come". In this case the "whereas" indicates an implicit contrast to the absence of such evidence.

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"Whereas the sun has risen, therefore day has come" is not grammatical. In normal use, the adverb therefore is conjunctive and joins independent clauses (or an independent clause and a consequential phrase). "Whereas the sun has risen" is not an independent clause, because of being preceded by conjunction whereas. On the other hand, "Whereas the sun has risen, day has come" is ok to say. It is particularly ok if pomposity is the desired effect. "The sun has risen, therefore day has come" seems better. – jwpat7 Jun 16 '12 at 15:23
Thanks for the correction @jwpat7. I'll strike my earlier comment. – austinfromboston Jun 18 '12 at 5:05

It's true that "while" and "whereas" can have the same use, but not in the specific examples that you have given.

Here are their individual meanings:

where = at any place/ situation that

whereas = but on the other hand; while on the contrary (used to point out how two things are different)

while = at the same time that

whenever = at any time that

If you're looking for an expression that fits "if and only if," you could use "provided/ providing that" or "as long as"

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