Daring can mean doing something that is inherently dangerous (because of fire, heights, enemies, wild beasts, zombies, etc.), but it can also mean doing something that is known to be forbidden or disapproved (defying your boss, cheating on your wife, etc.)
How dare you/he/she? is only used in a disapproving way:
- How dare you come here and accuse me?
- How dare she speak to me like that?
How do you dare? could be used conversationally to ask how someone has the courage to do something; however, it would be much more usual to ask in the past tense:
- How did you dare to walk out on that ledge?
In general, asking "how do you dare?" seems like bad form conversationally:
- on one hand, the person being asked may feel that s/he is bragging (I dare because I am a hero. Why do you ask?)
- on the other hand, asking a firefighter How do you dare to run into burning buildings day after day? carries with it the implicit question Are you f$%^&!@g crazy?