Alas, English grammar is not a matter of word following word, but rather of constructions. There can be no good answer for your question, as posed.
The verbs you cite have many different properties:
- be is unique.
- become means 'come to be', so it works pretty much like be
- get also means 'come to be', as well as 'come to have'
- seem and appear (which is synonymous with seem) take infinitive complements
- feel, look, taste, smell, and sound are sense verbs, which have unique syntax.
When an adjective follows be, get, or become, it is a simple predicate adjective.
When an adjective follows seem or appear, it is the result of To-Be-Deletion, e.g:
- He seems/appears (to be) tired.
And the sense verbs have their own grammar. Hearing, for instance, uses three different verbs for three different kinds of meaning:
- hear, which requires an animate subject and an object denoting a sound
- listen, which is the same as hear, except that it is volitional
- sound, which requires a sound as subject and a description of it following the verb.
Of course, hearing is the only sense with three different verbs; vision has two: see and look, and all the others use the same verb:
- I saw/heard/smelled/tasted/felt it (accidentally)
- I looked at/listened to/smelled/tasted/felt it (on purpose)
- It looks/sounds/smells/tastes/feels good (to me)
In case (3), the description can be an adjective, so that Dinner smells good actually means "What I can smell of dinner indicates to me that it is good".