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In both The Iliad and The Odyssey, Homer uses the phrase "words had wings" all over the place. Here's one quote of many:

Then the shadow of the swift-footed son of Aeacus knew who I was, and with a cry of grief, he spoke to me — his words had wings: "Resourceful Odysseus, Laertes' son and Zeus' child, what a bold man you are!"

(Emphasis mine.)

I assume this is a Greek idiom, but I don't really get it. What does this phrase mean, and how did it come to mean that?

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migrated from literature.stackexchange.com Apr 26 '12 at 15:11

"Our words have wings, but fly not where we would." (George Eliot) Words fly from the speakers' mouth to the listeners' ear of course; he may also be referring to the influence of the words, but I'd be interesting in hearing others' take on this. +1, btw – Joseph Weissman Oct 8 '11 at 5:58
up vote 20 down vote accepted

Nobody knows for sure.

The Greek phrase is “ἔπεα πτερόεντα”, and “winged words” is a literal translation. The idiomatic meaning of this expression is not known, and it has spurred considerable debate amongst translators and scholars.

Herbert Jordan, who translated Homer into English, shares some of the issues he encountered on his website. He discusses winged words.

A common school of thought is that “winged words” connote speed in some manner — either emphasizing the spontaneity of the words, or indicating that the words were spoken quickly. This interpretation is found amongst ancient and modern studies¹. George Calhoun contended that winged words were spoken with unusual emotion or intensity. At the other end of the spectrum his student Milman Parry held that the words held no particular meaning and that Homer “uses this phrase just because it is useful, and without thought for any particular meaning which the epithet ‘winged’ might have”. Winged words played an important role in the elaboration of some theories about oral traditions.

Some translators have translated the phrase literally, others have reflected a perceived emotion, yet others ignored these words.

Incidentally, the expression “winged words” has come to mean a phrase that started as a quote but then took a life of its own. The very coining of this usage by Georg Büchmann made “winged words” winged words.

¹ F. M. Combellack, Words that Die. The Classical Journal, 1950.
² M. Parry, About Winged Words. The Classical Journal, 1937.

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Great answer, thanks! – ladenedge Oct 11 '11 at 0:58

I've always thought that it was a rather beautiful description of how the thoughts of one person reach the thoughts of another through the medium of language. A poetic expedient, perhaps, but a deep one.

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A fairly standard metaphor, a version of the Conduit Metaphor, using carrier birds (symbolic of soul/mind/thought/desire) instead of boxcars or pneumatic tubes. – John Lawler Jul 19 '13 at 20:08

The words make an immediate and powerful impression upon the listener; he takes quick notice and renders full attention.

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Can you please indicate whether this is just your personal interpretation, or whether you have some external authority to substantiate this. Please not that this site expects authoritative answers and not just people's guesses or ideas. – TrevorD Jul 20 '13 at 15:29

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