"In the heat of the night" doesn't simply mean hot weather at night, does it?
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Yes it does.
It is the title of a famous film based on a novel published in 1965. I am not aware of any prior or more general usage of the phrase.
From this it also suggests alterations in human behaviour when subjected to long periods of unaccustomed heat; shortness of temper, heightened emotions.
In Dutch, you have 'in de HOLST' of the night, meaning the time between about 1.30 and 3.30. Might there be some etymological connection between this 'holst' and 'heat', possibly via descendants of Dutch immigrants into the USA?