Is there a term for the rhetorical device of making a statement by disguising it in the context of saying that you will not in fact make such a statement? I'm thinking of a politician announcing "I will not stoop to calling my opponent an adulterer" and, in effect, doing exactly that.
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Apophasis is exactly what you seek. To borrow the definition from Chambers, it means "effectively saying something by stating that you will not mention it."
It is a commonly-used word in theology: a description of God is apophatic when He is described using what He is not.
EDIT (adding another answer after FumbleFingers' comment) - Paralipsis. Once again borrowing Chambers definition, "A rhetorical figure by which one fixes attention on a subject by pretending to neglect it, as in ‘I will not speak of his generosity’, etc." I concur with FF that this is a better fit than Apophasis for OP's question.