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I know "any" is used only in plural (questions or negation) or for uncountable nouns OR if it expresses "whichever"/"every. But what about this?

Is there any document describing that? //can I use it? I am not asking for one particular..I want to express that I need any document describing something

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I have no idea where you got those rules for any. As Bidella points out, any is not restricted to plural or uncountable nouns; it's a quantifier for nouns. Its usage is very complex because it has several senses, one of which is a Negative Polarity Item; but those rules are silly, and you should not trust any English text that contains them. –  John Lawler Mar 7 '12 at 14:54
    
You can (grammatically) ask "Is there any document describing that?" - but in practice, even if only one would be sufficient, I think most native speakers would either say "Are there any documents describing that?", or more likely "Is there a document describing that?" –  FumbleFingers Mar 7 '12 at 19:34
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Of course you can. In this case, "any" is being used to express "whichever", which I see you have included in your question already.

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