It would depend on context and their relationship. Most immediately it refers to greetings as you've suggested, but flattery would not be outside the realm of possibility.
Edit: I see where you found that example, and it refers to the first definition given for the noun form:
a : behavior marked by polished manners or respect for others : courteous behavior
b : a courteous and respectful act or expression
It is considered courteous and respectful to greet someone however formally at the outset of contact. This way, we may adjust what we say based on whatever they offer in response to our greeting.
You asked for examples. Most often, these courtesies or greetings would be related to the hour as you suggested - good morning/afternoon/evening/day and be followed by inquiry into one's health, for example, 'how are you?' 'how have you been?'