According to The Phrase Finder chop chop has been around since the 1800s as a corruption of Chinese:
this little reduplicated term has its origins in the South China Sea, as a Pidgin English version of the Chinese term k'wâi-k'wâi. The earliest known citation of chop-chop in print is from the English language newspaper that was printed in Canton in the early 19th century - The Canton Register, 13th May 1834:
We have also... 'chop-chop hurry'.
A slightly fuller account was printed two years later, in a monthly journal which was produced by and for American missionaries in Canton - The Chinese Repository. In January 1836 it contained an article headed 'Jargon Spoken in Canton', which included:
"Chop-chop - pidgin Cantonese phrase for 'Hurry up!'"
It may be related to the word chopsticks as well although this link is tenuous at best:
Apart from in travelogues of the Far-East, there is little recorded mention of chop-sticks in English until the mid 20th century. The term 'quicksticks' however, did make it back to Britain in the 19th century, as an imperative meaning 'hurry up; do it without delay'. John C. Hotten recorded this in A dictionary of modern slang, 1859:
"Quick sticks, in a hurry, rapidly; 'to cut quick sticks', to be in a great hurry."
The Oxford English Dictionary supports the Chinese origin, citing the etymology as:
Etymology: Pidgin-English, < Chinese k'wâi-k'wâi .