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I'm working through verb types at the moment, and I was wondering if one considers the days of the week as nouns or adverbs in the context of the sentence "College resumes Monday".

It wouldn't really make too much sense to say that Monday is a direct object, which leads me to believe that the verb "resumes" is intransitive. But wouldn't the correct form in this situation be: "College resumes on Monday"?

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Obviously, you have made erroneous presumptions being distracted by the verb. Dropping the on is the real issue and has nothing to do with the nature of the verb resume, which is intransitive. You should look up the endless number of sentences (and esp. titles/ signages) that drop the on before the name of a week day. See photo captions in newspapers for more examples. –  Kris Feb 19 '12 at 13:17
    
This not a real question, but a misunderstanding/ misinterpretation. –  Kris Feb 19 '12 at 13:19
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You are correct. "Resumes" is intransitive in this case, and "College resumes on Monday" is the full form of this sentence. However, when referring to days of the week, it is pretty common practice to drop the "on".

NGram comparison

As you can see, dropping the "on" is a bit less common (at least in the case of resuming [on] Monday), but it is still a well-understood way to say the same thing.

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The correct form would indeed be

College resumes on Monday.

However, the preposition can sometimes be omitted, especially in news headlines. But that doesn't make Monday the direct object of resume.

The verb resume can be a transitive verb, too. For example:

The program resumed its work.

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