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I would like to be able to use a word specifically meaning the blue blood -- having hemocyanin rather than hemoglobin -- that, for example, an octopus has. I have been unable to find one using the internet. Does any such word exist?

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See Blood on Wikpedia, under para-3. "Vertebrate blood is bright red when its hemoglobin is oxygenated. Some animals, such as crustaceans and mollusks, use hemocyanin to carry oxygen, instead of hemoglobin. Insects and some mollusks use a fluid called hemolymph instead of blood, the difference being that hemolymph is not contained in a closed circulatory system. In most insects, this 'blood' does not contain oxygen-carrying molecules such as hemoglobin[.]" – Kris Feb 3 '12 at 5:11
up vote 10 down vote accepted

As a matter of fact, it's called hemolymph/haemolymph.

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