I know the contraction of am not, is not, are not, has not, have not, do not, does not, and did not can be represented as ain't. How can I understand correctly which contraction the speaker meant?
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Context. "am", "is" and "are" are all parts of the verb "to be", so the subject of the verb will tell you what is meant.
I ain't ready - I am not ready You ain't ready - You are not ready
I ain't got a clue - I haven't got a clue. The got hints we are talking about having or possession.
I think using ain't as a negation of "to do" is much rarer, and if you are in doubt, it's unlikely to be the right answer.