It appears the transitive verb provide has (at least) two prepositions:
provide (something) for (someone/something)
provide (something) to (someone/something)
The umbrellas provide shade for the guests.
He provided drugs to the prisoners.
In both of these examples, one could have swapped to and for, although the sentences as written feel more natural.
Is there a good rule to use when deciding whether to use to or for with provide?
No doubt endless opining on this question is possible. But I would very much prefer if someone could point me to some sort of authoritative source, e.g., OED, Cambridge ESL materials, Chicago Manual of Style.