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I am a non-native speaker of English. When communicating with a professor, would it be better to use could you kindly send me the document or could you please send me the document? I know both are correct, but which one shows more respect?

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You might want to check out the site for English Language Learners, too, in case you have any future questions that may not be a good fit for this site. – J.R. Jul 30 '13 at 10:49

Both are polite, and no reasonable professor would take objection to either. If you wanted to sound a little more formal, you could say I should be most grateful if you would send me the document.

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Yes, and in any case, a reasonable professor is going to allow for non-native English speakers. – slim Jan 5 '12 at 14:47
Why do you use "should" instead of "would" at the beginning of your sentence? – MarchingHome Oct 10 '13 at 18:42
Because I'm a speaker of British English. – Barrie England Oct 10 '13 at 18:46
If the OP is speaking to an American professor, it would probably be better for him to say "I would be most grateful if you would send me the document." I'm an American and I think Barrie England's sentence is a little strange - some might interpret his sentence as "I should be most grateful if you would send me the document, but I wouldn't be." – pacoverflow Jul 2 '14 at 7:55

I would prefer the word please in more formal communications. Kindly would be better-suited for familiar environments.

Also, I would use the word "would" instead of "could."

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If your professor knows you're not a native English speaker, he should be happy with either of those. So the following is purely academic:

"Please" is always the politest word to use when making a request. It is never wrong.

To my British ears, the following phrases have a very slightly haranguing tone (as of a nagging mother):

Would you kindly ...

Would you please ...

Could you kindly ...

Could you please ...

Whereas "Please could you..." is straightforward, conventional, polite and ubiquitous.

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I prefer using kindly rather than please. The latter sounds more like begging.

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I also prefer kindly, instead of please for the same reason. But I am not sure why this one got so much downvoted. – Sudar Mar 27 '14 at 0:03
@Sudar perhaps because it is just a subjective opinion (sounds like begging) with no citation. – nurettin Oct 14 '15 at 12:06

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