Your three examples of use are all correct, although the "my brother" one is clumsy and I'd only expect to hear that example with a name; e.g. "I went to the store sans Billy."
Another Shakespeare example: "Last scene of all /.../
Sans teeth, sans eyes, sans taste, sans everything."
A Horace Walpole example, regarding Frederick the Great:
Have you seen the works of the philosopher of Sans Souci, or rather, of the man who is no philosopher, and who has more Souci than any man now in Europe? How contemptible they are!
[As in ohne-sorgen-polka notes, Sans Souci can translate as Without worry, or more hiply as no sweat, "Ohne Sorge" being the German for Sans Souci.]