My boss today was provided with a cup of coffee when she was expecting tea. I find the brain has a pre-expectation of taste and, when confronted with an unexpected but familiar taste, struggles for a moment to process this. Is this a concept anyone is familiar with and, if so, is anyone aware of a term for it?
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There is no term specific to an unexpected taste. An appropriate term for the general reaction is simply:
While à propos but unrelated term presque vu (or, "tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon") may first come to mind, jamais vu ("when a person momentarily does not recognise [something] he or she already knows") surely is more appropriate.
Restaurant reviews, e.g. of Geminis II seem to use unexpected flavor combinations and gustatory dissonance as set phrases with meanings similar to what you want, but slightly different.
Unnerving also is used, albeit not with specificity; for example, an article about fig, goat cheese, and grilled onion savory cupcakes remarks,