What is the meaning of court as used in as did the court languages of Latin and French?
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It mean the language used in the king's court: presumably this is a reference to the kings of England, where the religious courtiers would often use Latin and the secular Norman courtiers would use French.
The peasants went on using Anglo-Saxon which evolved into English but that really only entered the court when the king was in dispute with his French cousins.
The court means the monarch's close circle: family, friends and advisers. In the words of the Oxford English Dictionary, it is The establishment and surroundings of a sovereign with his councillors and retinue.