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... or more specifically is there a particular name for a verb in the past tense? for example the train has arrived, whereas the process of achieving the state would be to arrive

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Enlightened? =P. – Claudiu Nov 4 '10 at 3:54

"Has arrived" is simply an example of the present perfect tense. If that's not what you were after, you'll need to clarify your question a bit.

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I think you're talking about the past participle. Example: to learn -> learned, to break -> broken.

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