What is the legal term in English for something that is punishable by law, but is not a crime (i.e. does not affect your criminal record)?
I mean all the lesser (than crime) violations of the law, such as
- parking where is it forbidden
- not wearing seat belts
- crossing the street on a red light
- drinking alcohol in public (in jurisdictions where is it punishable but not a crime)
- not registering your place of residence (in jurisdictions where such registration is compulsory)
Any violations for which you can be punished by law, but once convicted, can still legally answer the question "Do you have a clean criminal record?" with "Yes", and doesn't prevent you becoming a member of parliament, taking certain jobs which require a clean criminal record, etc.
Is there such a single legal term which unmistakably means only these "non-crime" actions punishable by law, and is not a broad term which just means any action punishable by law, be it crime and non-crime?
The word in Polish language is "wykroczenie", but online dictionaries translate it as "offence". However the definition of "offence" is any breach of a law, so it is not the correct word.
I am looking for the word which would be formally used in the legal code.
Do the US/British/Australian laws even have such a distinction between crime and non-crime offences? I think there must be some, because I don't think a parking violation would go on your criminal record.