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I am looking for

  1. words for the view of a person on his life or others' lives;
  2. words for the view of a person on the whole society, nation, country and/or the world;

By "view", I mean what things are meaningful and what are not, what are worth to do and what are not, what are right and what are wrong, ...

They can be either nouns or adjectives.

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up vote 14 down vote accepted

The English version of Daniel Roseman's answer is world view. I have most often heard it used in the second sense that you list, but it can also apply to the first.

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+1 I use this word a lot. – Daniel Sep 20 '11 at 17:59

One possibility might be Weltanschauung.

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Thanks! Has it been accepted into English? What people would use the word? – Tim Sep 20 '11 at 15:56
Yes it has but one doesn't encounter it in everyday use. Used by writers who can assume an educated audience. Otherwise perhaps "personal philosophy" or "outlook on life" etc – Wudang Sep 20 '11 at 17:18
Can't imagine a general reader will know this word. – BradC Sep 20 '11 at 20:42

One's personal philosophy would be a good word to use.

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Perspectives should fit the context in my opinion.

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Mores, if you mean something like their ethical views. Or standards. Or ethics itself.

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How about paradigm? It means a pattern of thought. It encompasses much of the same ground as world view.

You could use creed as a system of beliefs and most creeds include the idea of what's important and what's not important.

you could use the term value system.

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You may be looking for principles, or perhaps watchwords, or one's personal code.

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