I thought "commoner" is 'a person not of royal birth', but saw "commoner" used instead of "more common". Is this correct?
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It can be used that way and understood, because of the general pattern of adding -er to adjectives to form comparatives. However, commoner as a comparative is not standard.
The Oxford English Dictionary's entry for commoner only lists it as a noun. Wiktionary's entry does include an adjectival form, and it is defined as "more common," but calls this usage "less desirable" and "much less commonly used" than "more common."
Checking up Google Ngrams, using "commonest" and "most common" (not using "commoner" as Google Ngrams will show results of "commoner" as a noun) :
"Most common"(and deductively "more common") is more used.
Take this sentence for example:
It's not a stretch to imagine the listener might hear it as "Here's a commoner-ball" instead. "commoner" here refers to an adjectival noun instead of a comparative adjective.