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I thought "commoner" is 'a person not of royal birth', but saw "commoner" used instead of "more common". Is this correct?

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It can be used that way and understood, because of the general pattern of adding -er to adjectives to form comparatives. However, commoner as a comparative is not standard.

The Oxford English Dictionary's entry for commoner only lists it as a noun. Wiktionary's entry does include an adjectival form, and it is defined as "more common," but calls this usage "less desirable" and "much less commonly used" than "more common."

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It seems that it is allowed:

As a general rule, most other two syllable adjectives also form comparatives and superlatives with more and most, apart from those ending in -y (see (iii) above). However a few two-syllable adjectives can take either -er/-est or more/most. Here are five of the most common examples:

 common          commoner/more common    the commonest/most common      
 narrow      narrower/more narrow        the narrowest/most narrow

Checking up Google Ngrams, using "commonest" and "most common" (not using "commoner" as Google Ngrams will show results of "commoner" as a noun) :

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"Most common"(and deductively "more common") is more used.

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While Wiktionary (currently) has that definition, such prescription may not work well depending on your audience.

Take this sentence for example:

Here's a commoner ball.

It's not a stretch to imagine the listener might hear it as "Here's a commoner-ball" instead. "commoner" here refers to an adjectival noun instead of a comparative adjective.

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