If a word or phrase is used and has evolved its own meaning peculiar to a specific group, is this described as jargon or is there a closer semantic match?
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Yes, jargon usually has a meaning peculiar to a specific group. A synonym is intalk. Here's the Wiktionary definition for confirmation.
The definition of jargon refers to the vocabulary of a specific group:
However, if the word or phrase developed to keep others out (that is, it was purposefully created as a kind of linguistic barrier) it might be classified as a cant: