Is there a name for where prepositional phrases are in a sentence? For example, is there a name to distinguish between the following sentences?
There has not been a queen on the island.
On the island, there has not been a queen.
One difference between your sentences is that one has an introductory modifier (where the prepositional phrase is in the beginning), and the other does not. This site writes:
The term you may be looking for could be Adpositional Phrase.
Consider the second example-sentence you gave us.
I don't think that this sentence is grammatically wrong, but the modifier/preposition/Object of the sentence is reversed from the first sentence. Thus, the postpositional phrase. Now consider the first example-sentence you gave us.
There now, now it looks like a sentence we use everyday! It's because the sentence changes by how you position the modifier, the adposition and the object of the adposition.
P.S. I changed the word "the" into "this" because I felt that it fit better into the sentence.