Yes, conterminous and coterminous both mean "to share a boundary".
According to the entries for co- and con-, below, co- is an Anglicising of con-, which is possibly why Latin purists prefer con-
In this instance co- and con- both mean together or with.
Etymology of co-
in Latin, the form of com- in compounds with stems beginning in vowels and h- and gn- (see com-). Taken in English from 17c. as a living prefix meaning “together, mutually, in common,” and used promiscuously with native words and Latin-derived words not beginning with vowels, sometimes even with words already having it (e.g. co-conspiritor).
Etymology of con-
prefix meaning "together, with," sometimes merely intensive; the form of com- used in Latin before consonants except -b-, -p-, -l-, -m-, or -r-. In native English formations, co- tends to be used where Latin would use con- (e.g. costar).